ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to validate the computed tomography (CT) features of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by relating them to the clinical measurement of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in critically ill surgical patients.
The intra-vesical pressure was measured to reflect IAP in 24 critically ill patients. CT examinations obtained within 24h of IAP measurement were reviewed and scored independently by two consultant radiologists. Each CT examination was scored for the seven proposed features of IAH. Images obtained during the presence of IAH were compared with those obtained in the absence of IAH.
Forty-eight abdominal CT examinations were evaluated, of which 18 (38%) were obtained in the presence of IAH, whereas eight (17%) were obtained in the presence of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). At CT, the round belly sign (RBS) and bowel wall thickening with enhancement (BWTE) were significantly more frequently detected during the presence of IAH than when the IAP was less than 12 mmHg (78 versus 20% of examinations, p<0.001 and 39 versus 3% of examinations, p=0.003, respectively), but only BWTE was significantly associated with the presence of ACS (40 versus 11% of examinations, p=0.047).
The presence of RBS and BWTE on CT images of critically ill surgical patients should alert clinicians to the possibility of presence of IAH and ACS, and prompt measurement of the IAP and consideration of suitable interventions.
Clinical Radiology 07/2007; 62(7):676-82. · 1.95 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transhepatic biliary intervention (PTBI) plays an important role in the management of biliary obstruction, and this may be complicated by acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of acute pancreatitis following PTBI.
Patients who underwent PTBI between January 1992 and December 2003 in a tertiary referral centre were identified from the hospital database. Patients who did not have their amylase measured post-procedure were excluded, as acute pancreatitis might have been missed. Acute pancreatitis was defined as hyperamylasaemia of three times or more above normal in association with abdominal pain.
Over a 12-year period, 331 patients underwent 613 procedures. Serum amylase was measured after 134 procedures (21.9%) and was elevated in 26 of those (19.4%). There was no difference in the frequency of hyperamylasaemia between proximal and distal PTBI (14/73 [19.2%] vs 12/61 [19.7%] procedures, p=NS). However, acute pancreatitis developed after 4 of 61 (6.6%) distal PTBI (stent, n=3; internal-external catheter insertion, n=1) but not after proximal PTBI (cholangiography or external drainage) (p=0.041). The attacks were mild in three of the four patients. No pancreatitis-related deaths occurred.
The risk of acute pancreatitis after distal PTBI is under-recognized and should be considered as a consent issue in patients scheduled for distal PTBI and when post-procedure abdominal pain ensues.
HPB 02/2006; 8(6):446-50. · 1.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic bypass surgery for the palliation of gastric and biliary obstruction is associated with a rapid recovery. This study aimed to extend its application to other aspects in the management of patients with periampullary cancer.
Between 2001 and 2004, 21 patients (median age, 68 years) underwent laparoscopic gastric (n = 8), biliary (n = 5), and combined gastric and biliary (n = 8) bypass. In addition to its therapeutic role (n = 12), indications included a concomitant prophylactic gastric (n = 3) and biliary (n = 2) bypass as well as pre- 1 Whipple's relief of deep jaundice at the time of staging laparoscopy (n = 3). Construction of the biliary bypass to the gallbladder (n = 11) or bile duct (n = 2) was based on preoperative imaging.
All procedures were completed laparoscopically. The median operating times for gastric, biliary, and combined bypass were 75, 60, and 130 min, respectively. The addition of a prophylactic bypass did not significantly prolong the operating time, as compared with a single therapeutic bypass. One patient died postoperatively of aspiration pneumonia. The postoperative hospital stay (median, 4 days) was not significantly influenced by the type of bypass. No recurrence of or new obstructive symptoms developed during the follow-up period after a therapeutic or prophylactic bypass.
Applications of laparoscopic gastric and biliary bypass can safely be expanded to include a prophylactic role and preresection relief of obstructive jaundice. Prophylactic bypass surgery does not prolong operating time or hospital stay significantly and prevents future onset of obstructive symptoms.
Surgical Endoscopy 11/2005; 19(10):1333-40. · 4.01 Impact Factor