[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the immunologic impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in subjects who maintained human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) suppression through 6 years of receiving a lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen.
A total of 100 antiretroviral-naive subjects with any CD4+ T cell count initiated therapy with lopinavir-ritonavir, stavudine, and lamivudine. Sixty-three subjects who remained in the study for 6 years were assessed. Laboratory measurements included plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, multiparameter flow cytometry of immune cells, and markers of maturation and activation.
After 6 years, 62 of 63 subjects had plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <50 copies/mL. The mean increase in CD4+ T cell count was 528 cells/microL (P<.001), and 81% of subjects had CD4+ T cell counts >500 cells/microL, compared with 21% of subjects at baseline. The mean ratio of CD4+ T cell count to CD8+ T cell count increased from 0.38 at baseline to 0.96 at year 6 (P<.001). The percentage of subjects with cell counts below the lower limit of normal at year 6, compared with at baseline, was significantly decreased for total T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. At year 6, the median CD4+ T cell activation level was 3.4%, and the median CD8+ T cell activation level was 5.8%.
The receipt of a lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen resulted in ongoing immune reconstitution through 6 years of therapy in a cohort of HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral-naive subjects with suppressed HIV-1 RNA levels. Normalization of activation marker expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets was demonstrated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adverse effects are important determinants of quality of life (QOL) during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The PLATO study investigated the association between changes in patient-reported outcomes including QOL and substitution with lopinavir/ritonavir in patients experiencing side effects (SEs).
HIV-1-infected participants (N = 849) with undetectable viral load experiencing Grade-2 SEs of the protease inhibitor (PI) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) component of their HAART regimen were randomized to immediate (baseline) or deferred (week 4) substitution with lopinavir/ritonavir soft-gel capsules 400/100 mg bid. The primary endpoint was change in the total score from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Symptoms Distress Module (ASDM), supplemented with two items for nephrolithiasis. Secondary endpoints included Medical Outcomes Study (MOS)-HIV scores and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scores.
Immediate substitution resulted in improved ASDM total score at week 4 compared with deferred substitution (p <.001) and significant improvements in all MOS-HIV domains, while significant improvement was observed in CES-D scores at week 8. Primary SEs resolved at week 8 in 65% of participants in the immediate substitution group. Suppression of HIV-1 was maintained. Treatment was well-tolerated and associated with elevations in cholesterol and triglycerides.
Substitution with LPV/r improved patient-reported outcomes including QOL in patients experiencing Grade-2 SEs, while maintaining viral suppression.
HIV Clinical Trials 7(6):291-308. · 2.30 Impact Factor