[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rad5 is the key component in the Rad5-dependent error-free branch of postreplication repair in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Rad5 is a member of the Snf2 ATPase/helicase family, possessing as a characteristic feature, a RING-finger domain embedded in the Snf2-helicase domain and a HIRAN domain. Yeast mutants are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and reveal differences in homologous recombination. By sequence comparisons we were able to identify two homologs (AtRAD5a and AtRAD5b) in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, sharing about 30% identity and 45% similarity to yeast Rad5. AtRad5a and AtRad5b have the same kind of domain organization with a higher degree of similarity to each other than to ScRad5. Surprisingly, both genes differ in function: whereas two independent mutants of Atrad5a are hypersensitive to the cross-linking agents mitomycin C and cis-platin and to a lesser extent to the methylating agent, methyl methane sulfonate, the Atrad5b mutants did not exhibit any sensitivity to all DNA-damaging agents tested. An Atrad5a/Atrad5b double mutant resembles the sensitivity phenotype of the Atrad5a single mutants. Moreover, in contrast to Atrad5b, the two Atrad5a mutants are deficient in homologous recombination after treatment with the double-strand break-inducing agent bleomycin. Our results suggest that the RAD5-dependent error-free branch of postreplication repair is conserved between yeast and plants, and that AtRad5a might be functionally homologous to ScRad5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rad17 is involved in DNA checkpoint control in yeast and human cells. A homologue of this gene as well as other genes of the pathway (the 9-1-1 complex) are present in Arabidopsis and share conserved sequence domains with their yeast and human counterparts. DNA-damaging agents induce AtRAD17 transcriptionally. AtRAD17 mutants show increased sensitivity to the DNA-damaging chemicals bleomycin and mitomycin C (MMC), which can be reversed by complementation, suggesting that the loss of function of Rad17 disturbs DNA repair in plant cells. Our results are further confirmed by the phenotype of a mutant of the 9-1-1 complex (Rad9), which is also sensitive to the same chemicals. AtRAD9 and AtRAD17 seem to be epistatic as the double mutant is not more sensitive to the chemicals than the single mutants. The mutants show a delay in the general repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, frequencies of intrachromosomal homologous recombination (HR) are enhanced. Nevertheless, the mutants are proficient for a further induction of HR by genotoxic stresses. Our results indicate that a mutant Rad17 pathway is associated with a general deregulation of DNA repair, which seems to be correlated with a deficiency in non-homologous DSB repair.
The Plant Journal 07/2004; 38(6):954-68. · 6.58 Impact Factor