E Tel

Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, Eskisehir, Turkey

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Publications (25)29.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Glial tumors are the most common tumors of the nervous system, affecting individuals at any age. Since understanding of the molecular pathologies underlying human gliomas is still very poor, the treatment and therefore prognosis of this malignancy could not yet be improved. In order to determine whether different glioblastoma-associated genomic aberrations may serve as prognostic markers in combination with histopathological findings, 20 primary glioblastoma multiforme tumors were screened by comparative genomic hybridization, and the results were compared with histopathological and clinical features. All tumors showed genomic copy aberrations detected by comparative genomic hybridization. Regional and numerical increases in chromosome 7 copy number were the most frequently seen abnormality (10/20 tumors), followed by loss of chromosome 10 (8/20). Both of these aberrations were associated with shorter surveillance time. Chromosome 12q amplification was detected in seven tumors. Loss of 17p, 1p, and 19q in combination was seen in three cases. One of them was a giant cell GBM, whereas the remaining two cases were still alive. Combination of chromosome 1p and 19q deletions was also seen in a case with long surveillance. According to the preliminary findings of this study, in addition to the EGFR gene, amplification of other genes on chromosome 7 and the deletion of PTEN gene and other cancer-related genes on chromosome 10 appeared important to the development of glioblastoma multiforme and were associated with poor prognosis, whereas the combination of chromosome 1p and 19q deletions seems to be an informative molecular marker for better prognosis. The clinical features and genetic alterations of primary and secondary glioblastoma multiforme should be compared in large series to clarify the effective prognostic markers; and further molecular analyses focused on chromosomes 7 and 10 will be very helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of glioblastoma.
    Neurosurgical Review 02/2004; 27(1):58-64. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the potential therapeutic value of 21-aminosteroid U-74389G, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and edema in association with the changes in synaptosomal Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in rat brain subjected to post-ischemic reperfusion injury. Brain ischemia was achieved by means of four-vessel occlusion model for 25 min and animals were sacrificed after 12 h reperfusion. An increase of cerebral tissue water content, blood-brain disruption and the changes of synaptosomal Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-ATPases activities were evaluated. U-74389G was given intraperitoneally at two times as 5 mg/kg at 10 min prior to ischemia and at the beginning of reperfusion. Edema was determined by means of wet-dried weight method, and BBB of extravasation of Evan's blue dye. Extravasation of Evan's blue dye into brain following ischemia and reperfusion was 2.4-fold of control value and brought close to control levels by the effect of U-74389G (p<0.001). Post-ischemic reperfusion injury caused an increase of 3.7% in tissue water content of whole brain and administration of U-74389G lowered the cerebral edema (p<0.001). The loses in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-ATPase activities occurred as 42.1% (p<0.01) and 65.7% (p<0.001) of control value, respectively. While Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was enhanced compared to vehicle-treated group of animals (p<0.01), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was fully recovered when compared to control by U-74389G (p>0.05). U-74389G also significantly attenuated neuronal necrosis (p<0.001) which was determined in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Blood-brain barrier protection, attenuation of brain edema and neuronal necrosis concomitant with the stabilizing of membrane-bound enzymes brought about by the effect of U-74389G suggest that 21-aminosteroids are worthy of consideration in the acute treatment of cerebral ischemia.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 11/2003; 215(1-2):87-93. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the potential therapeutic value of the lazaroid U-83836E on blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and edema with respect to the changes in the synaptosomal Na+/K+ and Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activities, tissue malondialdehyde levels and the neuronal viability in the rat brain subjected to cerebral trauma. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was introduced by applying a 75 gm. cm force to the right parietal cortex using the weight-drop method. The first set of animals was used for determining time course changes of the synaptosomal Na+/K+ and Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-ATPase and the malondialdehyde levels and were sacrificed 2, 6 and 24h after lesion production. A group of the animals was treated with U-83836E proir to TBI and sacrificed 24h after cerebral injury. A second set of animals was used for evaluating the alterations in BBB disruption and tissue water content and were sacrificed 2, 6 and 24h after lesion production. Two groups of animals were treated with U-83836E and sacrificed after 2 and 24h following TBI. U-83836E was given intraperitoneally thirty minutes before trauma at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Neuronal necrosis was also evaluated in the groups of U-83836E and physiological saline-treated animals. Extravasation of Evans blue into the traumatized hemisphere was maximum at 2h (p<0.001) and returned close to the control levels at 24h after TBI (p>0.05). Edema had developed progressively over time and reached the maximum degree of 2.1% (p<0.001) at 24h. U-83836E showed no effect on the BBB breakdown and the tissue water content at 2h and still had no effect on the BBB breakdown after 24h following the trauma (p>0.05), although it reduced edema after 24h (p<0.01). The losses of Na+/K+ and Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were found as 39.5% (p<0.001) and 29.4% (p<0.01) of the control value, respectively, and remained at the decreased levels throughout the experiment. Malondialdehyde level continued to increase over time reaching up to 209% (p<0.001) of the control value 24h after TBI. Both ATPase activities were improved to near control values (p>.05) by the effect of U-83836E. U-83836E inhibited the increase of lipid peroxidation (p<0.001) and also salvaged neuronal necrosis (p<0.05). U-83836E given prophylactically after cerebral trauma appears to reduce edema, possibly by inhibiting increases in lipid peroxidation and by stabilizing ATPase. Further studies are recommended to verify the similar effects of the brain penetrating lazaroids when they are given after trauma.
    The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 05/2003; 30(2):143-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about genetic mutations during the malignant progression of spinal meningiomas. This study investigated genomic changes across the entire genome in spinal meningioma samples to determine possible mechanism(s) of tumorigenesis. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 16 spinal meningiomas were analyzed by the comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique. Lymphocytes of the patients were evaluated as controls. Genomic change was detected in 11 samples. Complete or partial loss of chromosome 22 was the most commonly seen abnormality in eight cases. Chromosome losses on 1p, 9p, and 10q and gains on 5p and 17q were the other abnormalities. These changes are all frequently seen in meningiomas, but are mostly specific to atypical and anaplastic meningiomas. However, in the present study, copy number changes on chromosomes 9p (3 samples), 17q (2 samples), and 1p (2 samples) were seen even in the benign tumors. Our results suggest that in addition to the neurofibromatosis type 2 tumor suppressor gene, other cancer-related genes located on 1p, 9p, 10q, and 17q might be involved in the etiology of spinal meningiomas.
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica 02/2003; 43(1):12-8; discussion 19. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HISTORY AND PRESENTATION. A case of a 3-year-old child with a right upper pulsatile eyelid swelling following a falling injury 3 months before is described. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a fracture of the orbital roof, a basofrontal dural tear and a direct communication of the cystic cavity with the subarachnoid space. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME. The patient underwent dural repair for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and was discharged in good health.
    Child s Nervous System 02/2003; 19(1):54-6. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of complications resulting from angiograms reported in the literature vary between 0.2-5 percent. This study was planned to determine the changes in cerebral blood flow velocity before and after angiography, using transcranial doppler in patients of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) undergoing angiographies. Thirty patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent transcranial doppler ultrasonography immediately before and after angiography. Nonionic water-soluble agents were used during the angiograms. The mean flow velocity (MFV) and pulsatility index (PI) at the M1 segment of both middle cerebral arteries was simultaneously measured. When the patients (11 male, 19 female, mean age+SD; 52.45+12.06) were compared according to changes in MFV and PI, pre and post-angiography, there was no statistical difference in MFV (p=0.51 and p=0.99, left and right side respectively), and in PI (p=0.48 and p=0.66) pre and post angiography. Although angiogram can be used to detect vasospasm in SAH, it can also be cause of vasospasm, partially due to the effect of the contrast agent on the cerebral arteries. This study proposes that the angiographic method is still safe and TCD can be used to follow up any possible changes in diameter of cerebral arteries before and after angiography.
    Neurology India 01/2003; 50(4):459-61. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meningiomas are common tumors of the central nervous system. Although most are benign tumors, approximately 10% show a histologic progression to a higher malignancy grade similar to atypical (GII) and anaplastic (GIII) meningiomas. Monosomy 22q12 is the most frequent genetic alteration detected in these tumors, but failure of detection of 22q mutations in about 40% of tumors which are indistinguishable from meningiomas with 22q deletions with respect to clinical and histopathologic features, makes it apparent that an alternative mechanism is responsible for the initiation of meningioma. Moreover, little is known about genetic alterations during malignant progression of meningioma. In order to determine the genetic pathways underlying the development of meningioma, 15 benign (WHO grade I), 7 atypical (WHO grade II) and 3 anaplastic (WHO grade III), sporadic meningiomas were screened by Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH). Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the number of chromosomal imbalances and the tumor grade; the numbers of total alterations detected per tumor were 2.20 (2.24 for GI, 10.00 (1.17 for GII and 14.66 (1.15 for GIII. The most frequent abnormality seen in benign tumors was loss on 22q (47%). The second alteration was 1p deletion (33%) and this abnormality was also the common aberration in three tumors without CGH detected 22q deletion. In GII, aberrations most commonly identified were losses on 1p (6/7 cases), 22q (5/7 cases), 10q (4/7 cases), 14q and 18q (3/7 cases) as well as gains on 15q and 17q (3/7 cases). In GIII, genomic loss on 1p was the most commonly observed abnormality (3/3). Losses on 9p, 10q, 14q, 15q, 18q and 22q as well as gains on 12q, 15q and 18p were the other genomic alterations detected by CGH. Combined 1p/14q deletions were encountered in 2/15 benign, 3/7 atypical and 2/3 anaplastic meningiomas. By CGH, DNA sequences on 17q21-qter were seen to be amplified in 1/7 GII and 2/3 GIII, whereas highly amplified DNA sequences on 12q13-qter, 20q and 22q11-q12 were seen in one GII, two GII/one GIII, and one GIII, respectively. It was concluded that chromosomal deletion from 1p could play a major role in the initiation and progression of meningiomas and that 1p/14q deletions could be a primary focus of further detailed assessment of tumour genesis.
    Acta neurologica Belgica 07/2002; 102(2):53-62. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we compared ventricular pressures (VP) and the progression of ventricular enlargement in a new experimental neonatal hydrocephalus model, to gain an understanding of how communicating hydrocephalus progresses. Kaolin was injected into the subarachnoid space at the cranial convexity of neonatal rats. Gross examination was performed on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days, and ultrasonographic examination on the 15th day, and at the end of the 1st and 2nd months following the kaolin application. Ventricular size indexes (VSI) were calculated in the case of a large ventricular dilatation. VPs were assessed on the 15th day, and at the end of the 1st and 2nd months, with a computerized data acquisition system. In the 1st and 2nd months VSIs were significantly higher than in control rats on the 15th day after kaolin administration. VP on the 15th day was significantly increased compared with that in control rats. VP in the 1st month was still high, but had subsided. In the 2nd month VP was not increased over control. In the late stages, the progression of infantile communicating hydrocephalus is not related to VP levels.
    Child s Nervous System 03/2002; 18(1-2):10-4. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) reconstruction of the vertebral column has added a new perspective to data sets usually presented in axial and coronal slices. It demonstrates in a single image the special relationship in normal and abnormal structures. In this study we investigated the benefits of the three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) in spinal trauma, tumour, infection and osteodegenerative conditions. We concluded that 3D-CT is of great benefit for understanding bone deformity and intracanalicular bone fragments, as well as the relationship between the bone and important structures such as the spinal cord. It is also an important aid in preoperative planning and post-operative assessment.
    Radiography 01/2002; 8(3):173-179.
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous implants for posterior stabilisation of cervical spine have been described so far. The aims of all these implants and techniques are rigid spinal stabilisation without neurologic damage, restoration of neuroanatomy and excellent radiological studies in postoperative period. The objective of this study was to determine the effectively and clinical safety of this system. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients treated with posterior stabilisation system for the stabilisation of traumatic and osteodegerative disorders of lower cervical spine in our department. This posterior cervical stabilisation system consist of titanium bullet-shaped implant (Ti-Frame) and titanium cables (sof' wire). All patients underwent only posterior fixation except 2 (anterior decompression and posterior stabilisation in 2 stages) and postoperative early immobilisation was allowed with Philadelphia collar in all patients. At the follow-up period 15.2 months (9-25 months), none of the patients had superficial or deep infection, implant resection or failure. In conclusion, this system (Ti-frame and titanium cables) is a simple, safe and effective system for posterior cervical stabilisation in patients with traumatic and osteodegenerative disorders due to provide rigid fixation and allow CT and MR imaging without the significant artifact.
    Journal of neurosurgical sciences 01/2002; 45(4):202-4; discussion 204-5. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe a child with a right cerebellar hemisphere metastasis from primary clear cell sarcoma of the kidney without evidence of bone metastases, and to investigate the immunohistochemical features of primary and metastatic tumors. A 12-month old boy was admitted our hospital due to an abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large right renal tumor. Tumor was removed with nephrectomy. Histopathologic examination of tumor revealed clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. The patient received radiotherapy and chemotherapy in postoperative period. He suffered from gait disturbance and confusion 8 months later. A computed tomography scan revealed a tumor that was enhanced with contrast medium at right cerebellar hemisphere concomitant with ventricular enlargement. After ventriculo-peritoneal shunting procedure, tumor was excised totally and histopathologic diagnosis showed metastasis of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Immunohistochemically vimentin, actin, desmin, neuron specific enolase, cytokeratin, P 53, Ki-67 and P-170 were performed using formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections. Both of the tumors were positive for vimentin and negative for desmin, actin, neuron specific enolase, cytokeratin and P 53. Scattered nuclei were stained by Ki-67 in primary and metastatic cerebellar tumor. Both primary and metastatic tumors were negative for p53 and P-170. The treatment consisted of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient is alive and well without evidence of recurrence 16 months after second surgery. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is most commonly associated with bone metastasis. Cerebellar metastasis of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney is very unusual. To the best of our knowledge, this patient is second case in the English literature. With review of the literature, our immunohistochemical findings support the theory that relapse and metastasis of primary clear cell sarcoma of the kidney are not related with increase of aggressiveness.
    Journal of neurosurgical sciences 01/2002; 45(4):228-31; discussion 231. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extremely rare presentation of an isolated spinal toxoplasmic arachnoiditis is described. To draw attention to the fact that spinal arachnoid membranes may be a potential reservoir for Toxoplasma gondii. Central nervous system toxoplasmosis is a common manifestation in patients who are immunodeficient. Reports on the spinal toxoplasmosis are rare and focused on spinal cord involvement. An adult patient presented with symptoms of spastic paraparesis that had begun 13 years before admission. Thoracic spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed small lesions in posterior subarachnoid space at Th7-Th8. A Th7-Th8 laminectomy was performed. Intradural-extramedullary lesions were excised. Clinical, immunologic, and pathologic examinations showed adhesive spinal arachnoiditis associated with osteoid formation caused by past toxoplasmic infection. There was no impairment of the immunologic defense system. Where no causative factor is found in serious spinal adhesive arachnoiditis, the possibility of spinal toxoplasmosis should also be investigated.
    Spine 09/2001; 26(15):1726-8. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a case of a diabetic patient with nocardial abscesses of cerebrum, cerebellum and the spinal cord. The present case is the first case in the literature of solitary intramedullary abscess in cervical spinal cord, causing tetraplegia. Nocardia asteroides grew in a culture of the abscess pus. After either surgical excision or drainage of lesions, a triple combination regimen of chemotherapy (amikacin, ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) was given, but the patient was lost in the postoperative period. This case gives suggestive evidence of an association between cervical spinal cord involvement and poor prognosis in CNS nocardiosis.
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 05/2001; 103(1):59-62. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The principles of the management of upper cervical injuries remain controversial. The specific anatomical conditions render upper cervical injuries more problematic than lower cervical injuries. Here we present and discuss our experiences with upper cervical injury, comparing them with other treatment modalities. The 24 patients admitted to our department with upper cervical injury were treated surgically or conservatively according to their neurological and radiological status. Five patients were treated surgically due to neurological abnormality associated with compression to neural structures observed in computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI). Patients with no neural compression were managed conservatively, with the Philadelphia collar. All patients showed stable fracture healing and experienced no additional clinical disability on follow-up after a minimum of 3 months, except one who died due to cardiac and respiratory failure. Regardless of the type of injury, indication for surgery in many cases of upper cervical injury is neurological abnormality associated with radiologically observed neural compression. It is our belief that, in the absence of both neurological abnormality and compression to neural structures observed in CT/MRI, treatment with the Philadelphia collar alone is safe, cost-effective and easily applicable for many cases of upper cervical injury.
    European Journal of Emergency Medicine 04/2001; 8(1):33-7. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knife-inflicted, deeply penetrating head and neck trauma is an uncommon life-threatening injury and a challenging problem. An examination of the neurovascular and systemic physical status is a first requirement and the decision as to which approach to adopt for the removal of the blade is of critical importance. Here we report a rare case of a pre-auricular stab wound with the knife blade deeply lodged in the extracranial infratemporal fossa. Radiological investigations showed that the knife blade had entered from the temporomandibular joint and become lodged through the anterior margin of foremen magnum below the petrosal bone. Minimal left vocal cord paresis, left palatal weakness and a slight deviation of the tongue towards the left side were observed. The other neurological and systemic physical evaluations were normal. Simple withdrawal of the blade in the operating room did not cause serious neurovascular injury. Here we discuss and compare the expanded exposure of anatomical structures for blade removal and simple withdrawal in similar injuries.
    European Journal of Emergency Medicine 04/2001; 8(1):51-4. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In many cases communicating hydrocephalus is the result of impairments in cerebrospinal fluid absorption in the arachnoid villi at the cranial convexity. Reported methods of creating experimental hydrocephalus have not sought to produce an arachnoidal adhesion in the cranial convexity. In this study the authors investigate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in experimental communicating hydrocephalus induced by the injection of kaolin into the subarachnoid space at the convexity in neonatal rats. In neonatal rats, kaolin was injected into the subarachnoid space at the cranial convexity. Assessment of CBF alterations was performed using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography preinjection and at 10 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postinjection. Light microscopy examination was also performed at 4 weeks and 8 weeks postinjection. Conspicuous lateral ventricle enlargements of different dimensions were observed in kaolin-injected rats at 4 to 8 weeks postinjection. The third and fourth ventricles were dilated to a lesser extent. Resistance to CBF and increased mean CBF velocity were apparent 8 weeks after kaolin injection. Further, destruction and even loss of ependymal layers were more prominent at the chronic stage. The present model may be considered a progressive communicating hydrocephalus because of marked changes in blood flow dynamics and destruction of the ependymal layer at the chronic stage.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 03/2001; 94(2):265-9. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a report of a 3-year-old boy with intracranial penetration of a nasogastric tube causing brain damage in the left frontal lobe. A computed tomography (CT) showed passage of the nasogastric tube via a fracture of the cribriform plate into the intracranial cavity. The tube was manually removed under antibiotic prophylaxis. The patient then underwent dural repair for rinorrhoea and was discharged in good health.
    Child s Nervous System 12/2000; 17(1):112-114. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim is to determine the mechanism of non-hindbrain-related syringomyelia in experimental models. The effects of obstruction of central canal and subarachnoid space on occurrence of cavities were discussed. 31 Sprague-Dawley rats were used with eight (Group D) as a control. In 10 rats (Group A) 1.5 microl kaolin was microinjected into the dorsal columns and central gray matter of the spinal cord at the level of Th6-10. In 10 rats (Group B) 0.1 cc kaolin was injected into the subarachnoid space at the same level. In 3 rats (Group C), 1.5 microl kaolin was administered into both dorsal midline of the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space. In Group A, histological examination revealed cystic cavity and dilatation of the central canal in five rats; denuded ependymal line and multicystic formations in ependymal and periependymal areas in seven rats. In Group B, denuded ependymal line in three rats and microcystic formations in ependymal and periependymal areas in four rats were revealed. In Group C, there were microcystic formations in two rats and syrinx cavity in one rat. Developments leading to occurrence of cavities are focused on the central canal in all groups. These models indicate that the CSF-flow is from the subarachnoid space to the central canal leading to changes of cavities. In cases of obstruction of the subarachnoid space or the central canal, the occurrence of syrinx cavity initially is due to increased CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) pressure in the central canal. Flow changes in spinal cord is indicated by this study.
    Journal of neurosurgical sciences 10/2000; 44(3):123-7. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coexistence of two distinct meningoceles of the spine is a very unusual event. We report a three-day-old boy with double meningoceles at the thoracic and lumbar levels. The connection between the stalk of the thoracic meningocele and the spinal cord, as seen on magnetic resonance imaging, showed a neurological involvement in this lesion. Our case is only the third without association of congenital anomalies or neurofibromatosis to be reported to date.
    The Turkish journal of pediatrics 01/2000; 42(4):331-3. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of the cellular multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene and its product, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), is thought to be a mechanism for the failure of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Calcium channel blockers have been shown to sensitise cancer cells to anticancer drugs by reversing Pgp expression in cell lines. The interactions between anticancer drugs such as carmustine (BCNU), vincristine (VCR) and procarbazine (PCB) and calcium channel blockers such as nimodipine and verapamil on cultured cells of glioblastoma from eight patients were therefore tested. Pgp expression was examined immunohistochemically using C219 monoclonal antibody in cytospin preparation. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was screened using microculture tetrazolium assay. The cells from five patients showed positive immunoreaction for Pgp. Nimodipine showed growth-inhibitory activity against glioblastoma cells at a rate of 16.55-26.88% (P < 0.05), but a similar effect was not observed with verapamil. While antiproliferative effects of BCNU were around 20.91-45.09% (P < 0.05) on the cells from seven patients, VCR was the most effective agent in inhibition of cell growth at a rate of 26.43-48.47% (P < 0.05). The response of the cells from five patients to PCB was from 11.98 to 16.32% (P < 0.05). When used together, nimodipine further enriched cytotoxicity of the anticancer drugs up to 11.14-40.85% (P < 0.05) without relation to Pgp expression. In conclusion, the enhancement of cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs by nimodipine suggests that there might be a synergy between anticancer drugs and nimodipine in the inhibition of glioma cell growth.
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 12/1999; 101(4):238-44. · 1.23 Impact Factor