[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A purpose of the study is to provide basic information in order to find better ways for more effective cadaver dissection education by analyzing education effect on paramedical students after cadaver dissection. By using questionnaires composed of 12 questions, we have surveyed 1,041 paramedical students who participate in cadaver dissection in 2013 and analysed the results. The paramedical students are the department of nursing science, operation treatment, physical therapy, alternative medicine, clinical pathology, emergency rescue and dental hygienics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphology of xiphoid process by dissection and using radiography of cadavers and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients.
The xiphoid processes of 41 cadavers were dissected and taken by radiography. Other 902 patients examined by MDCT were revealed by image post-processing used with multiple planar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection and volume rendering.
Xiphoid processes displayed pointed shape in 422 cases (44.75 %), oval shape in 387 cases (41.04 %), and forked shape in 134 cases (14.21 %). The sagittal shape of the xiphoid process was observed as ventrally deviated in 217 cases (23.01 %), dorsally deviated in 191 cases (20.25 %), S-shaped (ahead ventral, then dorsal) in 21 cases (2.23 %), and resembling a hook in 14 of ventral deviated patients and in 19 of those dorsal deviated patients. The foramen of xiphoid processes was found in 544 cases (57.69 %). The pattern L (a large foramen with a diameter of more than 5 mm) appeared in 302 cases (55.51 %), pattern S (a small foramen with a diameter of no more than 5 mm) in 155 cases (28.49 %), pattern LS (a mixture of a large and a small foramina) in 37 cases (6.80 %), and pattern SS (two or more small foramina) in 50 cases (9.19 %).
Human xiphoid process appeared in morphological diversity. The anatomic structure and ossification degree of xiphoid process was well evaluated by MDCT. Our data may be used for diagnosis and surgical treatment of xiphoid process-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a rare variation of the right-sided aortic arch with the retroesophageal left subclavian artery as the forth branch found in a cadaver of an 89-year-old Korean woman during a routine dissection. In this case, the first branch that arose from the ascending aorta was the left common carotid artery, which crossed ventral to the trachea in a left cephalic direction, followed by the right common carotid artery and then the right subclavian artery. Distal to these branches the aortic arch ran dorsally, passing between the esophagus and the vertebra. The left subclavian artery arose from the descending portion of the aortic arch, crossing over to the left upper extremity behind the esophagus. This anomaly was not accompanied by congenital heart disease. Accurate information regarding this variation is of great importance to surgeons for its early identification and preservation during interventions and to radiologists for precise interpretation of angiograms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of electrical stimulation (ES) on the recovery of motor skill and neuronal cell proliferation.
The male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an epidural electrode over the peri-ischemic area after photothrombotic stroke in the dominant sensorimotor cortex. All rats were randomly assigned into the ES group and control group. The behavioral test of a single pellet reaching task (SPRT) and neurological examinations including the Schabitz's photothrombotic neurological score and the Menzies test were conducted for 2 weeks. After 14 days, coronal sections were obtained and immunostained for neuronal cell differentiation markers including bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN), and doublecortin (DCX).
On the SPRT, the motor function in paralytic forelimbs of the ES group was significantly improved. There were no significant differences in neurological examinations and neuronal cell differentiation markers except for the significantly increased number of DCX+ cells in the corpus callosum of the ES group (p<0.05). But in the ES group, the number of NeuN+ cells in the ischemic cortex and the number of NeuN+ cells and DCX+ cells in the ischemic striatum tended to increase. In the ES group, NeuN+ cells in the ischemic hemisphere and DCX+ cells and BrdU+ cells in the opposite hemisphere tended to increase compared to those in the contralateral.
The continuous epidural ES of the ischemic sensorimotor cortex induced a significant improvement in the motor function and tended to increase neural cell proliferation in the ischemic hemisphere and the neural regeneration in the opposite hemisphere.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 06/2013; 37(3):301-10. DOI:10.5535/arm.2013.37.3.301
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been an increasing concern that atypical antipsychotics as well as typical ones may cause detrimental effects on cognitive function. Supporting evidence comes from many preclinical studies demonstrating that long-term administration of haloperidol, risperidone, and ziprasidone reduced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in rat hippocampus (HIP). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the effects of amisulpride on ChAT expression in rats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of amisulpride, haloperidol, and risperidone on ChAT expression in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and HIP. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of amisulpride (5 or 100 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 or 2 mg/kg), risperidone (1 or 2 mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 or 45 days. One day after the last injection, rats were sacrificed. ChAT immunoreactivity was assessed with immunofluorescence staining. Target areas of brain were PFC and HIP (CA1, CA3 and DG). The short-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone produced significant decrease of ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP compared to vehicle whereas amisulpride had no effects on ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP. In long-term study, haloperidol and risperidone decreased ChAT-positive cells and/or fiber pixel density in the PFC and HIP whereas amisulpride decreased ChAT-positive cells in the PFC and had no effects on fiber pixel density of ChAT in the HIP. The results suggest that both short-term and long-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone, and long-term administration of amisulpride may produce detrimental effects on cognitive function by reducing ChAT expression in the PFC and/or HIP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (Liliaceae) water extract (AAWE) on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions. Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis. In Korea, where it has been used as a traditional medicine, AAWE is known to have antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, its specific effect on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions is still unknown. METHODS: We examined whether or not AAWE could inhibit IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis, and mast cell activation. RESULTS: Oral administration of AAWE inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis in mice. AAWE also inhibited the local allergic reaction, PCA, activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE antibody in rats. AAWE reduced compound 48/80-induced degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). Moreover, AAWE inhibited histamine release and calcium uptake of RPMCs induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. AAWE also significantly inhibited secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophores A23187-stimulated RPMCs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that AAWE suppresses compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation by inhibition of cellular mechanisms in signaling pathways, and would be beneficial for treatment of mast cell-mediated anaphylactic response.
Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 01/2012; 65(4). DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2011.12.006 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using semiserial sections from 19 human fetuses of 8-30 weeks gestation, we examined the topohistology of the upper abdominal lymphatics and compared it with that of the lower abdominal and pelvic lymphatics. The upper abdominal lymphatics were characterized by an intimate relationship with the peritoneal lining, a common mesentery for the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Lymphatic connections from the upper abdominal viscera to the paraaortic and paracaval areas followed two routes: (1) from the intestinal mesentery, along the peritoneum on the left aspect of the proximal SMA, via the chain of lymph follicles (LFs) lying along the retropancreatic fusion fascia, to drain into the LFs around the left renal vein; (2) from sites along the peritoneum on the posterior wall of the omental bursa, via the root of the hepatoduodenal ligament, to drain into LFs around the vena cava. The development of these two posterior drainage routes seemed to be promoted by the peritoneum or a peritoneal remnant (i.e., fusion fascia) attaching to the great vessels, and inhibited or impeded by the developing nerves and diaphragm. No paraaortic, paracaval, or pelvic LFs lay along the peritoneum. The pelvic LFs were usually located along the bundle of lymphatic vessels originating from the femoral canal.
The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 01/2012; 295(1):91-104. DOI:10.1002/ar.21527 · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aripiprazole, a dopamine system stabilizer, shows efficacy against both negative symptoms and positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on c-FOS expression in rat brain.
Aripiprazole (1, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) and haloperidol (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered to adult Male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 2 h of drug or vehicle administration, the rats were killed and their brains were removed and perfused with fixative, then cut into 40 µm slices on a freezing microtome. Brain regions of interest were the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the nucleus accumbens core and shell (NAC-C and NAC-S), the hippocampus (CA1, CA3 and DG), the central amygdala (Ce), the basolateral amygdala (BL) and the temporal cortex (Tc). Immunohistochemistry was performed to label cell bodies containing c-FOS.
The administration of aripiprazole at all doses (1, 10 or 30 mg/kg) resulted in greater Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the investigated brain areas, as compared to the vehicle. Comparable increases in FLI were demonstrated in the NAC-C and NAC-S in response to both aripiprazole and haloperidol treatment. The administration of haloperidol (0.1 or 1 mg/kg) also resulted in greater FLI in the investigated brain areas, except the mPFC, where no changes were observed. In the Ce and BL, a significant increase in Fos-positive neurons was observed only with 0.1 mg/kg of haloperidol.
Both aripiprazole and haloperidol increased FLI in limbic areas, which are considered important targets of antipsychotic drugs. The differential action of aripiprazole on FLI in the amygdala and mPFC as compared to haloperidol may be a good way to differentiate atypical from typical antipsychotics.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 04/2011; 9(1):36-43. DOI:10.9758/cpn.2011.9.1.36
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is widely distributed throughout the heart, skin, gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and nervous and immune systems. ANP acts to mediate vasodilation and induces mast cell activation in both human and rats in vitro. However, the mechanisms of ANP-induced mast cell activation, the extent to which ANP can induce tissue swelling, mast cell degranulation, and granulocyte infiltration in mouse skin are not fully understood. This issue was investigated by treatment with ANP in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) and mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) in vitro and by injection of ANP into the skin of congenic normal WBB6F1/J-Kit+/Kit+ +/+, genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1/J-Kit(W)/Kit(W-v) (W/W(v)) and mast cell-engrafted W/W(v) (BMCMC→W/W(v)) mice in vivo. ANP induced the release of histamine and TNF-α from RPMCs and enhanced serotonin release from MPMCs, in a dose-dependent fashion, as well as reduced cAMP level of RPMCs in vitro. In +/+ mice, ANP induced significant tissue swelling, mast cell degranulation, and granulocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner, whereas not in genetically mast cell-deficient W/W(v) mice. However, ANP-induced cutaneous inflammation has been restored in BMCMC→W/W(v) mice. These data indicate that mast cells play a key role in the ANP-induced cutaneous inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are well recognized as key cells in allergic reactions, such as asthma and allergic airway diseases. However, the effects of mast cells and TNF-α on T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine-dependent asthma are not clearly understood. Therefore, an aim of this study was to investigate the role of mast cells on Th2 cytokine-dependent airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. We used genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1/J-Kitw/Kitw-v (W/Wv), congenic normal WBB6F1/J-Kit+/Kit+ (+/+), and mast cell-reconstituted W/Wv mouse models of allergic asthma to investigate the role of mast cells in Th2 cytokine-dependent asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). And we investigated whether the intratracheal injection of TNF-α directly induce the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in W/Wv mice. This study, with OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged mice, revealed the following typical histopathologic features of allergic diseases: increased inflammatory cells of the airway, airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased levels of TNF-α, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, the histopathologic features and levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 proteins in W/Wv mice after OVA challenges were significantly inhibited. Moreover, mast cell-reconstituted W/Wv mice showed restoration of histopathologic features and recovery of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels that were similar to those found in +/+ mice. Intratracheal administration of TNF-α resulted in increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels in W/Wv mice. These results suggest that mast cells play a key role in a Th2 cytokine-dependent asthma model through production of adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, by liberation of TNF-α.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 01/2011; 43(1):35-43. DOI:10.3858/emm.2011.43.1.004 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring dithiol compound, is an essential cofactor in metabolic reactions involved in energy utilization. LA improves glycemic control, reduces diabetic polyneuropathies, atherosclerosis, and allergic inflammation. The effects of LA on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions, however, are unknown. LA dose-dependently inhibited systemic and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reactions in mice induced by compound 48/80, a condensation product of N-methyl-p-methoxyphenethylamine and formaldehyde. Pretreatment with LA, prior to induction of the systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction with compound 48/80, reduced plasma histamine levels in a dose-dependent manner. In our in vitro study, LA decreased histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) triggered by compound 48/80. Moreover, an increase in calcium uptake activated by compound 48/80 was inhibited by LA. LA also significantly elevated intracellular cyclic adenosine-3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) levels in RPMCs. This inhibition of mediator release from RPMCs may be due to inhibition of calcium uptake and augmentation of intracellular cAMP levels. Based on these results, we suggest that LA may be a potential remedy for allergy-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bilateral depletion of dopamine (DA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following local infusions of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was reported to affect mesolimbic DA neurotransmission and augment spontaneous and amphetamine-induced locomotion. However, the effects of 6-OHDA lesioning of the mPFC of adolescent rats have never been investigated. Given that dopaminergic neurons reach the peak of maturation during adolescence, we hypothesized that 6-OHDA lesioning of the mPFC during adolescence would have greater impact on subsequent behavioral parameters than would such lesioning during adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-OHDA lesioning of the mPFC on the open-field activities and novel investigative and socially interactive behaviors of adolescent and adult rats. Using a stereotaxic apparatus, 6-OHDA (8.0 microg) was injected bilaterally into the mPFC of adolescent and adult rats. After a 1-week recovery period, rats were placed in an open-field chamber, and spontaneous locomotion and other behaviors were monitored. Next, a novel toy was place in the center and behavioral responses were observed. One day later, socially interactive behaviors were measured by placing the lesioned rats into a cage with four unfamiliar rats matched for age. The tests of locomotor activity and novel investigative behaviors revealed no significant differences between the lesioned and sham groups of adolescent or adult rats. Grooming and socially interactive behaviors were significantly lower in the adolescent and adult lesioned groups than in each sham group. Interestingly, we observed more extensive impairment in socially interactive behaviors among the adolescent lesioned rats compared to the adult lesioned rats. The present study indicates that DA depletion in the mPFC causes significantly reduced grooming and socially interactive behaviors; this phenomenon may be comparable to the negative symptoms observed in schizophrenia. Further research is warranted to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the detrimental effects of 6-OHDA lesioning of the mPFC on social behaviors.
Brain research 07/2010; 1346:183-9. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.05.064 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agaricus blazei is a medicinal mushroom native to Brazil. It used to be a source of anti-tumor and immunmoactive compounds and considered a health food in many countries. However, its specific effect against mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Agaricus blazei water extract (ABWE) on mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions. We examined whether ABWE could inhibit systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction, ear swelling response, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and mast cell activation. ABWE inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction, ear swelling response, and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reaction in mice. ABWE also inhibited anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. ABWE dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced or anti-DNP IgE-mediated histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, pretreatment with ABWE reduced compound 48/80-induced calcium uptake into RPMC. When ABWE was added, the level of intracellular cAMP in RPMC showed a significant increase compared with that of control cells. In addition, ABWE significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results propose that ABWE may be beneficial in the treatment of mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Phellinus linteus has been used as a traditional herb medicine in oriental countries and is known to have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities. However, roles of Phellinus linteus in the mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions have not fully been examined. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus (WEPL) on mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions. Oral administration of WEPL inhibited the compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction and ear swelling response. WEPL also inhibited the anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis. WEPL had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). WEPL dose-dependently reduced histamine release from RPMC activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Moreover, WEPL decreased the compound 48/80-induced calcium uptake into RPMC. Furthermore, WEPL increased the level of intracellular cAMP and significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggest that WEPL may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for allergic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was investigated the effect of Houttuynia cordata THUNB water extract (HCWE) on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions. The mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. HCWE has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea and is known to have an antioxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, its specific effect of mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions is still unknown. We examined whether HCWE could inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), and mast cell activation. The oral administration of HCWE inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis in mice. HCWE also inhibited the local allergic reaction, PCA, activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody in rats. HCWE reduced the compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation and colchicine-induced deformation of rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, HCWE dose-dependently inhibited histamine release and calcium uptake of RPMC induced by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. HCWE increased the level of intracellular cAMP and inhibited significantly the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggest that HCWE may be beneficial in the treatment of mast cell-mediated anaphylactic responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of hot-water extract from the root bark of Morus alba (HEMA) on anaphylactic reactions. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, we examined whether HEMA could inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock and anti-chicken gamma globulin (CGG) IgE-mediated rat peritoneal mast cell activation. HEMA significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by the compound 48/80 in mice. HEMA also significantly inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-CGG IgE. HEMA had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, HEMA dose-dependently inhibited mast cell degranulation, histamine release and calcium uptake into RPMC induced by the compound 48/80 or anti-CGG IgE. When HEMA was added, the level of intracellular cAMP in RPMC showed a transient and significant increase (5-fold) compared with that of control cells. HEMA also inhibited significantly the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggested that HEMA inhibits the compound 48/80- or anti-CGG IgE-induced mast cell activation and its inhibitory effects on mast cell activations were favorably comparable to disodium cromoglycate. And HEMA is a candidate for effective therapeutic tools of allergic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of hot-water extract from the root bark of Morus alba (HEMA) on anaphylactic reactions. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, we examined whether HEMA could inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock and anti-chicken gamma globulin (CGG) IgE-mediated rat peritoneal mast cell activation. HEMA significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by the compound 48/80 in mice. HEMA also significantly inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-CGG IgE. HEMA had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, HEMA dose-dependently inhibited mast cell degranulation, histamine release and calcium uptake into RPMC induced by the compound 48/80 or anti-CGG IgE. When HEMA was added, the level of intracellular cAMP in RPMC showed a transient and significant increase (5-fold) compared with that of control cells. HEMA also inhibited significantly the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggested that HEMA inhibits the compound 48/80- or anti-GG IgE-induced mast cell activation and its inhibitory effects on mast cell activations were favorably comparable to disodium cromoglycate. And HEMA is a candidate for effective therapeutic tools of allergic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although reports of hypoplasia or absence of the liver of left lobe are not few, descriptions of the intrahepatic vessels are rare but valuable for discussion of the pathogenesis. The present report demonstrates a case of the left surgical lobe hypoplasia that is characterized by 1) the scar-like lobe with few parenchymal tissue and dilated bile ducts, 2) no Spiegel's lobe with the portal vein stuck to the inferior vena cava, 3) unusual configurations of the right hepatic vein and the 8th segmental portal vein branch, 4) the hepatic groove on S8, and 5) the trifurcation pattern of the portal vein primary division. According to the macroscopic and histological observations, we hypothesized that the secondary abnormal peritoneal fusion occurred in utero and/or during the postnatal growth, and that it involved the left portal vein and other adjacent structures, resulting in severe atrophy of the left surgical lobe.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 01/2004; 18(6):828-32. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2003.18.6.828 · 1.27 Impact Factor