[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia of active skeletal muscle evokes a powerful blood pressure-raising reflex termed the muscle metaboreflex (MMR). MMR activation increases cardiac sympathetic nerve activity, which increases heart rate, ventricular contractility, and cardiac output (CO). However, despite the marked increase in ventricular work, no coronary vasodilation occurs. Using conscious, chronically instrumented dogs, we observed MMR-induced changes in arterial pressure, CO, left circumflex coronary blood flow (CBF), and coronary vascular conductance (CVC) before and after alpha1-receptor blockade (prazosin, 100 microg/kg iv). MMR was activated during mild treadmill exercise by partially reducing hindlimb blood flow. In control experiments, MMR activation caused a substantial pressor response-mediated via increases in CO. Although CBF increased (+28.1 +/- 3.7 ml/min; P < 0.05), CVC did not change (0.45 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.06 ml x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), exercise vs. exercise with MMR activation, respectively; P > 0.05). Thus all of the increase in CBF was due to the increase in arterial pressure. In contrast, after prazosin, MMR activation caused a greater increase in CBF (+55.9 +/- 17.1 ml/min; P < 0.05 vs. control) and CVC rose significantly (0.59 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.81 +/- 0.17 ml x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), exercise vs. exercise with MMR activation, respectively; P < 0.05). A greater increase in CO also occurred (+2.01 +/- 0.1 vs. +3.27 +/- 1.1 l/min, control vs. prazosin, respectively; P < 0.05). We conclude that the MMR-induced increases in sympathetic activity to the heart functionally restrain coronary vasodilation, which may limit increases in ventricular function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid recovery of resting hemodynamics from tachycardia- or arrhythmia-induced heart failure (HF) has been demonstrated in both humans and animals. However, little is known about cardiovascular responses to exercise in animals or about reflex control of the cardiovascular system during exercise while recovering from HF. Inasmuch as the reduced cardiac output (CO) during exercise in HF has been shown to lead to underperfusion of active skeletal muscle and tonic activation of the muscle metaboreflex, an improved CO during exercise in subjects recovering from HF may lead to higher skeletal muscle blood flows and to relief of this metabolic stimulus. We investigated cardiovascular responses to graded treadmill exercise and metaboreflex activation [evoked by imposed graded reductions in hindlimb blood flow (HLBF) during mild and moderate exercise] in chronically instrumented dogs during control, mild to moderate HF (induced by rapid ventricular pacing), and recovery from HF. Most hemodynamic responses to graded exercise returned to control within 24 h of disconnecting the pacemaker. After 2 wk of recovery, CO and HLBF at each workload were significantly higher than control. In addition, whereas the increase in CO that normally occurs with metaboreflex activation was markedly attenuated in HF, it completely returned in the recovery experiments. We conclude that cardiovascular responses to graded exercise during the recovery from pacing-induced HF return rapidly to near or above control and that the increased CO and HLBF in recovery likely relieved the metabolic stimulus and tonic metaboreflex activation that may have occurred during moderate exercise in HF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of muscle metaboreflex activation on left circumflex coronary blood flow (CBF), coronary vascular conductance (CVC), and regional left ventricular performance in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs during treadmill exercise before and after the induction of heart failure (HF). In control experiments, muscle metaboreflex activation during mild exercise elicited significant reflex increases in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output. CBF increased significantly, whereas no significant change in CVC occurred. There was no significant change in the minimal rate of myocardial shortening (-dl/dt(min)) with muscle metaboreflex activation during mild exercise (15.5 +/- 1.3 to 16.8 +/- 2.4 mm/s, P > 0.05); however, the maximal rate of myocardial relaxation (+dl/dt(max)) increased (from 26.3 +/- 4.0 to 33.7 +/- 5.7 mm/s, P < 0.05). Similar hemodynamic responses were observed with metaboreflex activation during moderate exercise, except there were significant changes in both -dl/dt(min) and dl/dt(max). In contrast, during mild exercise with metaboreflex activation during HF, no significant increase in cardiac output occurred, despite a significant increase in heart rate, inasmuch as a significant decrease in stroke volume occurred as well. The increases in mean arterial pressure and CBF were attenuated, and a significant reduction in CVC was observed (0.74 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.62 +/- 0.12 ml x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.05). Similar results were observed during moderate exercise in HF. Muscle metaboreflex activation did not elicit significant changes in either -dl/dt(min) or +dl/dt(max) during mild exercise in HF. We conclude that during HF the elevated muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in sympathetic tone to the heart functionally vasoconstrict the coronary vasculature, which may limit increases in myocardial performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated to what extent heart failure alters the ability of the muscle metaboreflex to improve ventricular function. Dogs were chronically instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and central venous pressure (CVP) at rest and during mild treadmill exercise (3.2 km/h) before and during reductions in hindlimb blood flow imposed to activate the muscle metaboreflex. These control experiments were repeated at constant heart rate (ventricular pacing 225 beats/min) and at constant heart rate coupled with a beta-adrenergic blockade (atenolol, 2 mg/kg iv) in normal animals and in the same animals after the induction of heart failure (HF, induced via rapid ventricular pacing). In control experiments in normal animals, metaboreflex activation caused tachycardia with no change in SV, resulting in large increases in CO and MAP. At constant HR, large increases in CO still occurred via significant increases in SV. Inasmuch as CVP did not change in this setting and that beta-adrenergic blockade abolished the reflex increase in SV at constant HR, this increase in SV likely reflects increased ventricular contractility. In contrast, after the induction of HF, much smaller increases in CO occurred with metaboreflex activation because, although increases in HR still occurred, SV decreased thereby limiting any increase in CO. At constant HR, no increase in CO occurred with metaboreflex activation even though CVP increased significantly. After beta-adrenergic blockade, CO and SV decreased with metaboreflex activation. We conclude that in HF, the ability of the muscle metaboreflex to increase ventricular function via both increases in contractility as well as increases in filling pressure are markedly impaired.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial baroreflex function is well preserved during dynamic exercise in normal subjects. In subjects with heart failure (HF), arterial baroreflex ability to regulate blood pressure is impaired at rest. However, whether exercise modifies the strength and mechanisms of baroreflex responses in HF is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relative roles of cardiac output and peripheral vasoconstriction in eliciting the pressor response to bilateral carotid occlusion (BCO) in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs at rest and during treadmill exercise ranging from mild to heavy workloads. Experiments were performed in the same animals before and after rapid ventricular pacing-induced HF. At rest, the pressor response to BCO was significantly attenuated in HF (33.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 18.7 +/- 2.7 mmHg), and this difference persisted during exercise in part due to lower cardiac output responses in HF. However, both before and after the induction of HF, the contribution of vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle toward the pressor response became progressively greater as workload increased. We conclude that, although there is an impaired ability of the baroreflex to regulate arterial pressure at rest and during exercise in HF, vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle becomes progressively more important in mediating the baroreflex pressor response as workload increases with a pattern similar to that observed in normal subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of muscle metaboreflex activation on left circumflex coronary blood flow (CBF) and vascular conductance (CVC) in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs during treadmill exercise ranging from mild to severe workloads. Metaboreflex responses were also observed during mild exercise with constant heart rate (HR) of 225 beats/min and beta(1)-adrenergic receptor blockade to attenuate the substantial reflex increases in cardiac work. The muscle metaboreflex was activated via graded partial occlusion of hindlimb blood flow. During mild exercise, with muscle metaboreflex activation, hindlimb ischemia elicited significant reflex increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR, and cardiac output (CO) (+39.0 +/- 5.2 mmHg, +29.9 +/- 7.7 beats/min, and +2.0 +/- 0.4 l/min, respectively; all changes, P < 0.05). CBF increased from 51.9 +/- 4.3 to 88.5 +/- 6.6 ml/min, (P < 0.05), whereas no significant change in CVC occurred (0.56 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.59 +/- 0.05 ml. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P > 0.05). Similar responses were observed during moderate exercise. In contrast, with metaboreflex activation during severe exercise, no further increases in CO or HR occurred, the increases in MAP and CBF were attenuated, and a significant reduction in CVC was observed (1.00 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.13 ml. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.05). Similarly, when the metaboreflex was activated during mild exercise with the rise in cardiac work lessened (via constant HR and beta(1)-blockade), no increase in CO occurred, the MAP and CBF responses were attenuated (+15.6 +/- 4.5 mmHg, +8.3 +/- 2 ml/min), and CVC significantly decreased from 0.63 +/- 0.11 to 0.53 +/- 0.10 ml. min(-1). mmHg(-1). We conclude that the muscle metaboreflex induced increases in sympathetic nerve activity to the heart functionally vasoconstricts the coronary vasculature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that in dogs performing mild to moderate treadmill exercise, partial graded reductions in hindlimb blood flow cause active skeletal muscle to become ischemic and metabolites to accumulate thus evoking the muscle metaboreflex. This leads to a substantial reflex increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) mediated almost solely via a rise in cardiac output (CO). However, during severe exercise CO is likely near maximal and thus metaboreflex-mediated increases in MAP may be attenuated. We therefore evoked the metaboreflex via partial graded reductions in hindlimb blood flow in seven dogs during mild, moderate, and severe treadmill exercise. During mild and moderate exercise there was a large rise in CO (1.5 +/- 0.2 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 l/min, respectively), whereas during severe exercise no significant increase in CO occurred. The rise in CO caused a marked pressor response that was significantly attenuated during severe exercise (26.3 +/- 7.0, 33.2 +/- 5.6, and 12.2 +/- 4.8 mmHg, respectively). We conclude that during severe exercise the metaboreflex pressor response mechanisms are altered such that the ability of this reflex to increase CO is abolished, and reduced pressor response occurs only via peripheral vasoconstriction. This shift in mechanisms likely limits the effectiveness of the metaboreflex to increase blood flow to ischemic active skeletal muscle. Furthermore, because the metaboreflex is a flow-raising reflex and not a pressure-raising reflex, it may be most appropriate to describe the metaboreflex magnitude based on its ability to evoke a rise in CO and not a rise in MAP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arterial baroreflex mediates changes in arterial pressure via reflex changes in cardiac output (CO) and regional vascular conductance, and the relative roles may change between rest and exercise and across workloads. Therefore, we quantified the contribution of CO and regional vascular conductances to carotid baroreflex-mediated increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) at rest and during mild to heavy treadmill exercise (3.2 kph; 6.4 kph, 10% grade; and 8 kph, 15% grade). Dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented to measure changes in MAP, CO, hindlimb vascular conductance, and renal vascular conductance in response to bilateral carotid occlusion (BCO). At rest and at each workload, BCO caused similar increases in MAP (average 35 +/- 2 mmHg). In response to BCO, neither at rest nor at any workload were there significant increases in CO; therefore, the pressor response occurred via peripheral vasoconstriction. At rest, 10.7 +/- 1.4% of the rise in MAP was due to vasoconstriction in the hindlimb, whereas 4.0 +/- 0.7% was due to renal vasoconstriction. Linear regression analysis revealed that, with increasing workloads, relative contributions of the hindlimb increased and those of the kidney decreased. At the highest workload, the decrease in hindlimb vascular conductance contributed 24.3 +/- 3.4% to the pressor response, whereas the renal contribution decreased to only 1.6 +/- 0.3%. We conclude that the pressor response during BCO was mediated solely by peripheral vasoconstriction. As workload increases, a progressively larger fraction of the pressor response is mediated via vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle and the contribution of vasoconstriction in inactive beds (e.g., renal) becomes progressively smaller.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experiments were designed to determine 1) the mechanisms mediating metaboreflex-induced increases in systemic arterial pressure (SAP) in response to total vascular occlusion of hindlimb blood flow [e.g., increases in cardiac output (CO) vs. peripheral vasoconstriction] and 2) whether the individual mechanisms display differential latencies for the onset of the responses. Responses were observed in seven dogs performing steady-state treadmill exercise of mild and moderate workloads (3.2 km/h at 0% grade and 6.4 km/h at 10% grade). Differential latencies were exhibited among CO, nonischemic vascular conductance (NIVC; conductance to all nonischemic vascular beds), and renal vascular conductance (RVC), with peripheral vasoconstriction significantly preceding metaboreflex-mediated increases in CO. In addition, the latencies for SAP were not different from those for NIVC or RVC at either workload. During the lower workload there were small increases and then subsequent decreases in CO before the metaboreflex-induced increase in CO, which did contribute somewhat to the initial increases in SAP. However, the increases in CO mediated by the metaboreflex occurred significantly later than the initial increases in SAP. Therefore, we conclude that the substantial metaboreflex-mediated pressor responses that occur during the initial phase of total vascular occlusion during mild and moderate exercise are primarily caused by peripheral vasoconstriction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia of active skeletal muscle elicits a powerful pressor response, termed the muscle metaboreflex. We recently reported that the muscle metaboreflex pressor response acts to partially restore blood flow to the ischemic active skeletal muscle. However, because this reflex is activated by reductions in O2 delivery rather than blood flow per se, gain of the muscle metaboreflex as analyzed on the basis of blood flow alone may underestimate its true strength if this reflex also acts to increase arterial O2 content. In conscious dogs chronically instrumented to measure systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output, and hindlimb blood flow, we activated the muscle metaboreflex via graded, partial reductions in hindlimb blood flow during mild (3.2 km/h) and moderate (6.4 km/h, 10% grade) workloads. At rest, during free-flow exercise, and with metaboreflex activation, we analyzed arterial blood samples for Hb concentration and O2 content and compared muscle metaboreflex gain calculations based on the ability to partially restore flow with those based on the ability to partially restore O2 delivery (blood flow x arterial O2 content). During both mild and moderate exercise, metaboreflex activation caused significant increases in arterial Hb concentration and O2 content. Metaboreflex gain quantified on the ability to partially restore O2 delivery was significantly greater than that based on restoration of blood flow during both mild and moderate workloads (0.52 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.08, P < 0.05, and 0.61 +/- 0. 05 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.04, P < 0.05, respectively). We conclude that the muscle metaboreflex acts to increase both arterial O2 content and blood flow to ischemic muscle such that when combined, O2 delivery is substantially increased and metaboreflex gain is greater when analyzed with a more integrative approach.
The American journal of physiology 04/1999; 276(4 Pt 2):H1399-403. · 3.28 Impact Factor