[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The persistence of HIV-1 in virally suppressed infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains a major therapeutic problem. The use of cytokines has been envisioned as an additional therapeutic strategy to stimulate latent proviruses in these individuals. Immune activation therapy using IL-2 has shown some promise. In the present study, we found that IL-7 was significantly more effective at enhancing HIV-1 proviral reactivation than either IL-2 alone or IL-2 combined with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in CD8-depleted PBMCs. IL-7 also showed a positive trend for inducing proviral reactivation from resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected patients on suppressive HAART. Moreover, the phylogenetic analyses of viral envelope gp120 genes from induced viruses indicated that distinct proviral quasispecies had been activated by IL-7, as compared with those activated by the PHA/IL-2 treatment. These studies thus demonstrate that different activators of proviral latency may perturb and potentially deplete only selected, specific portions of the proviral archive in virally suppressed individuals. The known immunomodulatory effects of IL-7 could be combined with its ability to stimulate HIV-1 replication from resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes, in addition to other moieties, to potentially deplete HIV-1 reservoirs and lead to the rational design of immune-antiretroviral approaches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The novel antitumor-promoting phorbol ester, prostratin, was evaluated for its ability to induce the expression of latent, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-persistent human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) from specific subsets of patients' peripheral blood cells. This evaluation was performed relative to the use of other cellular activating agents, such as OKT3, a monoclonal antibody against the human T cell receptor, interleukin-2 (IL-2), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), p24 antigen (HIV-1-specific capsid protein), and a molecular relative of prostratin, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (DPP). Prostratin performed as efficiently as the other cellular activators at inducing the expression of latent HIV-1 from cells of patients on virally suppressive HAART. Of interest was the induction of a novel species of latent virus from the cells of an individual after exposure to the HIV-1-specific capsid protein, p24, relative to virus expression induced by several other cell activators. This suggests that a variety of agents may be available for animal model studies of lentiviral latency and clinical use to broadly induce the expression of latent, HAART-persistent HIV-1 in vivo with the goal of potential HIV-1 reservoir depletion or eradication.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 06/2004; 20(5):497-505. DOI:10.1089/088922204323087741 · 2.46 Impact Factor