[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus.
Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species.
About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2%) of which were dissected, 60 (20.3%) blood meals collected and 57 (19.3%) trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively.
The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined with the circulation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in this focus suggests a transmission cycle involving humans and domestic animals and could hamper eradication strategies. The various species of trypanosomes identified in the Malanga sleeping sickness focus indicates the coexistence of animal and human African Trypanosomiasis. The development of new strategies integrating control measures for human and animal trypanosomiasis may enable the reduction of the control costs in this locality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the potential transmission sites of sleeping sickness in Kinshasa, two entomologic surveys were carried out during the dry and the rainy seasons in rural and periurban areas of Kinshasa in 2005. About 610 pyramidal traps were set up, and 897 Glossina fuscipes quanzensis were captured. Environmental and biologic factors were reported, and relationships between these factors were evaluated using logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis. The biologic factors (the presence of tsetse flies, human blood meals, and teneral flies) were progressively accumulated at each capture site to permit the characterization of the sleeping sickness transmission risk. The dry season was found to be a more favorable period for the disease transmission than the rainy season. Moreover, the landscapes characterized by the presence of argillaceous soils, raised ground cover with forest residues and rivers, were identified as types of environments with greater risk of sleeping sickness transmission. Pig breeding appeared as an important factor increasing the disease transmission. If vector control is continuously performed along rivers segments at high risk, the transmission of sleeping sickness in rural and periurban areas of Kinshasa will considerably decrease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts.