Ellen R Taylor

WWF United Kingdom, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

Are you Ellen R Taylor?

Claim your profile

Publications (5)25.79 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The redox poise of the mitochondrial glutathione pool is central in the response of mitochondria to oxidative damage and redox signaling, but the mechanisms are uncertain. One possibility is that the oxidation of glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and the consequent change in the GSH/GSSG ratio causes protein thiols to change their redox state, enabling protein function to respond reversibly to redox signals and oxidative damage. However, little is known about the interplay between the mitochondrial glutathione pool and protein thiols. Therefore we investigated how physiological GSH/GSSG ratios affected the redox state of mitochondrial membrane protein thiols. Exposure to oxidized GSH/GSSG ratios led to the reversible oxidation of reactive protein thiols by thiol-disulfide exchange, the extent of which was dependent on the GSH/GSSG ratio. There was an initial rapid phase of protein thiol oxidation, followed by gradual oxidation over 30 min. A large number of mitochondrial proteins contain reactive thiols and most of these formed intraprotein disulfides upon oxidation by GSSG; however, a small number formed persistent mixed disulfides with glutathione. Both protein disulfide formation and glutathionylation were catalyzed by the mitochondrial thiol transferase glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), as were protein deglutathionylation and the reduction of protein disulfides by GSH. Complex I was the most prominent protein that was persistently glutathionylated by GSSG in the presence of Grx2. Maintenance of complex I with an oxidized GSH/GSSG ratio led to a dramatic loss of activity, suggesting that oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool may contribute to the selective complex I inactivation seen in Parkinson's disease. Most significantly, Grx2 catalyzed reversible protein glutathionylation/deglutathionylation over a wide range of GSH/GSSG ratios, from the reduced levels accessible under redox signaling to oxidized ratios only found under severe oxidative stress. Our findings indicate that Grx2 plays a central role in the response of mitochondria to both redox signals and oxidative stress by facilitating the interplay between the mitochondrial glutathione pool and protein thiols.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2004; 279(46):47939-51. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the physiological role of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 2 and 3 is uncertain, their activation by superoxide and by lipid peroxidation products suggest that UCPs are central to the mitochondrial response to reactive oxygen species. We examined whether superoxide and lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal act independently to activate UCPs, or if they share a common pathway, perhaps by superoxide exposure leading to the formation of lipid peroxidation products. This possibility can be tested by blocking the putative reactive oxygen species cascade with selective antioxidants and then reactivating UCPs with distal cascade components. We synthesized a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the spin trap alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, which reacts rapidly with carbon-centered radicals but is unreactive with superoxide and lipid peroxidation products. [4-[4-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-oxidoimino]methyl]phenoxy]butyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide (MitoPBN) prevented the activation of UCPs by superoxide but did not block activation by hydroxynonenal. This was not due to MitoPBN reacting with superoxide or the hydroxyl radical or by acting as a chain-breaking antioxidant. MitoPBN did react with carbon-centered radicals and also prevented lipid peroxidation by the carbon-centered radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-methyl propionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Furthermore, AAPH activated UCPs, and this was blocked by MitoPBN. These data suggest that superoxide and lipid peroxidation products share a common pathway for the activation of UCPs. Superoxide releases iron from iron-sulfur center proteins, which then generates carbon-centered radicals that initiate lipid peroxidation, yielding breakdown products that activate UCPs.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2004; 278(49):48534-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the physiological role of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 2 and 3 is uncertain, their activation by superoxide and by lipid peroxidation products suggest that UCPs are central to the mitochondrial response to reactive oxygen species. We examined whether superoxide and lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal act independently to activate UCPs, or if they share a common pathway, perhaps by superoxide exposure leading to the formation of lipid peroxidation products. This possibility can be tested by blocking the putative reactive oxygen species cascade with selective antioxidants and then reactivating UCPs with distal cascade components. We synthesized a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the spin trap α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, which reacts rapidly with carbon-centered radicals but is unreactive with superoxide and lipid peroxidation products. [4-[4-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-oxidoimino]methyl]phenoxy]butyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide (MitoPBN) prevented the activation of UCPs by superoxide but did not block activation by hydroxynonenal. This was not due to MitoPBN reacting with superoxide or the hydroxyl radical or by acting as a chain-breaking antioxidant. MitoPBN did react with carbon-centered radicals and also prevented lipid peroxidation by the carbon-centered radical generator 2,2′-azobis(2-methyl propionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Furthermore, AAPH activated UCPs, and this was blocked by MitoPBN. These data suggest that superoxide and lipid peroxidation products share a common pathway for the activation of UCPs. Superoxide releases iron from iron-sulfur center proteins, which then generates carbon-centered radicals that initiate lipid peroxidation, yielding breakdown products that activate UCPs.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2003; 278(49):48534-48545. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with mitochondria is of pathological significance and is also a potential mechanism for the regulation of mitochondrial function. Some of the ways in which NO may affect mitochondria are by reacting with low-molecular-weight thiols such as glutathione and with protein thiols. However, the detailed mechanisms and the consequences of these interactions for mitochondria are uncertain. Here we review mitochondrial thiol metabolism, outline how NO and its metabolites interact with thiols, and discuss the implications of these reactions for mitochondrial and cell function.
    Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 07/2003; 5(3):291-305. · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria is involved in oxidative damage to the organelle and in committing cells to apoptosis or senescence, but the mechanisms of this increase are unknown. Here we show that ROS production by mitochondrial complex I increases in response to oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool. This correlates with thiols on the 51- and 75-kDa subunits of complex I forming mixed disulfides with glutathione. Glutathionylation of complex I increases superoxide production by the complex, and when the mixed disulfides are reduced, superoxide production returns to basal levels. Within intact mitochondria oxidation of the glutathione pool to glutathione disulfide also leads to glutathionylation of complex I, which correlates with increased superoxide formation. In this case, most of this superoxide is converted to hydrogen peroxide, which can then diffuse into the cytoplasm. This mechanism of reversible mitochondrial ROS production suggests how mitochondria might regulate redox signaling and shows how oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool could contribute to the pathological changes that occur to mitochondria during oxidative stress.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2003; 278(22):19603-10. · 4.65 Impact Factor