[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrotermis bellicosus (a reproductive form of winged termite) oil was extracted, and the oil was physically and chemically characterized. The lipid content of the insect was 31.46�0.57 (wet weight). The oil was a clear, odourless liquid, of a light yellow colour and it was fluid at room temperature (26�2<sup>o</sup>C). Lipid analysis revealed that the insect oil comprised 69.87�0.73% neutral lipid, 19.14�0.06% phospholipid and 10.81�0.40% glycolipids. Further analysis revealed a refractive index of 1.20�0.01, specific gravity of 0.90�0.01, solidification value of 10-14<sup>o</sup>C, total lipid phosphorus of 47.18�0.03 (mg/g lipid), acid value of 3.60�0.06, iodine value of 108.00�0.15, saponification value of 193.40�0.31, unsaponifiable matter of 12.04�0.11, free cholesterol of 8.73�1.01 (mg/100g lipid) and total cholesterol of 47.18�0.03. The unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 51.02% of the total fatty acids whereas the saturated fatty acids constituted 48.98 % of the fatty acids. These values when compared with that observed in oils which have been considered to be of high quality, suggest that Macrotermis bellicosus oil has potentials that could be exploited by the nutritional and pharmaceutical companies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximate and chemical analyses was carried out on the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) and the observed results used to assess it nutritionally. A high fat content ( 25.30?0.20% wet weight ) rich in the essential fatty acids was observed, while all the essential amino acids were detected in varying amounts in the protein component. Macro-elements like sodium (773.49?1.02 mg/100g), calcium (60.81?0.32 mg/100g) and potassium (26.65?0.24 mg/100g) as well as micro-elements like copper (1.26?0.04 mg/100g), cadmium (0.039?0.022 mg/100g) and zinc (10.57?0.89 mg/100g) were present in significant amounts in the insect larva. The insect larva could form a base for new food /feed products of considerable nutritive value, especially if some level of defatting is done to further increase the relative proportion of the protein component.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Industrial sludge was obtained from four industries: aluminium extrusion, brewery, pharmaceutical and textile processing factory and treated by aerobic, anaerobic, physicochemical, combined aerobic/physicochemical and combined anaerobic/physicochemical methods. The results showed that the final destination of the sludge would determine the type and degree of treatment required for the sludge. Physicochemical method generally increases the quantity of sludge solids, thus making the sludge suitable for land reclamation; also, the firmer and denser floc characteristics of the physicochemicallly treated sludge makes the methods a better alternative if conditioned sludge are to be used to reinforce cement for brick making. Biological treatment methods (aerobic and anaerobic) can be used to reduce the quantity of sludge before disposal. Solids destruction is closely related to biogas production. If using sludge as a source of fuel is the focus, the anaerobic biological system may be the best option. Aerobic biological method and the combined aerobic/physicochemical methods are good options for ammonia reduction. Anaerobic biological method is best for improving the nitrogen content and hence the protein content of sludge so as to use the waste sludge as feeds for poultry birds and livestock. Economic values, application and disposal options of the various sludge are discussed.