[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though simple, blood pressure measurement is prone to errors, which may mislead a doctor in the detection, monitoring and treatment of hypertension. In public hospitals, consultants tend to rely on measurements made by other health care providers in the assessment of patients. This report is being presented to highlight the danger patients might be exposed to, when physicians consistently delegate their duties. A physician, who is a known hypertensive, was the subject of this study. His blood pressure was measured by an observer group (control) and an experimental group (hospital staff) independently and compared. There was a significant difference between the two groups of measurement. It is therefore recommended that physicians should measure blood pressures during clinics and ward rounds in order to have a better assessment of their patients. Nurses and junior doctors should be trained in the act of blood pressure measurements and screened periodically for visual and auditory defects.
African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 02/2011; 2(2):666-669.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrotermis bellicosus (a reproductive form of winged termite) oil was extracted, and the oil was physically and chemically characterized. The lipid content of the insect was 31.46�0.57 (wet weight). The oil was a clear, odourless liquid, of a light yellow colour and it was fluid at room temperature (26�2<sup>o</sup>C). Lipid analysis revealed that the insect oil comprised 69.87�0.73% neutral lipid, 19.14�0.06% phospholipid and 10.81�0.40% glycolipids. Further analysis revealed a refractive index of 1.20�0.01, specific gravity of 0.90�0.01, solidification value of 10-14<sup>o</sup>C, total lipid phosphorus of 47.18�0.03 (mg/g lipid), acid value of 3.60�0.06, iodine value of 108.00�0.15, saponification value of 193.40�0.31, unsaponifiable matter of 12.04�0.11, free cholesterol of 8.73�1.01 (mg/100g lipid) and total cholesterol of 47.18�0.03. The unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 51.02% of the total fatty acids whereas the saturated fatty acids constituted 48.98 % of the fatty acids. These values when compared with that observed in oils which have been considered to be of high quality, suggest that Macrotermis bellicosus oil has potentials that could be exploited by the nutritional and pharmaceutical companies.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 03/2007; 6(3). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2007.247.251
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximate and chemical analyses was carried out on the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) and the observed results used to assess it nutritionally. A high fat content ( 25.30?0.20% wet weight ) rich in the essential fatty acids was observed, while all the essential amino acids were detected in varying amounts in the protein component. Macro-elements like sodium (773.49?1.02 mg/100g), calcium (60.81?0.32 mg/100g) and potassium (26.65?0.24 mg/100g) as well as micro-elements like copper (1.26?0.04 mg/100g), cadmium (0.039?0.022 mg/100g) and zinc (10.57?0.89 mg/100g) were present in significant amounts in the insect larva. The insect larva could form a base for new food /feed products of considerable nutritive value, especially if some level of defatting is done to further increase the relative proportion of the protein component.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 05/2005; DOI:10.3923/pjn.2005.287.290
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mean concentration of some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) in the muscles and the organs of some common species of fish: Metacembelus Iconnbergii, Clarias lazera, Citarinus citharus, Tilapia zilli and Erpetoichithy were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The mean concentrations of lead in the muscle, kidney and liver were in the ranges of 0.00 – 0.004 mg/kg, 0.010 – 0.015 mg/kg, and 0.004 – 0.010 mg/kg respectively, while that of the surrounding waters were between and 0.001 – 0.005 mg/kg. Cadmium concentrations were in the range of 0.001 – 0.002 mg/kg in the muscles, 0.004 – 0.006 mg/kg in the kidney and 0.002 – 0.004 mg/kg in the liver while that of the surrounding water was 0.001 mg/kg. The levels of mercury were 0.001– 0.002 mg/kg in the muscle, 0.004 – 0.006 mg/kg in the kidney, 0.002 – 0.004 mg/kg in the liver and 0.001 – 0.002 mg/kg in the surrounding waters. From the results, it was observed that the levels of these metals in the fishes were higher than that obtained in the surrounding waters from which the fishes were obtained. The distribution of lead, cadmium and mercury in the fishes investigated showed significant variations with respect to the muscles and the organs. The kidney had higher concentration of the metals compared to the liver, which is in turn higher than that in the muscle. This indicates that the kidney of fish is a better bio-accumulator of heavy metals than the liver and the muscle. The accumulation patterns of heavy metals contaminants in fish depend on uptake and elimination rate. The implications of these contaminants beyond the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural organization (FAO) permissible limits were discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Industrial sludge was obtained from four industries: aluminium extrusion, brewery, pharmaceutical and textile processing factory and treated by aerobic, anaerobic, physicochemical, combined aerobic/physicochemical and combined anaerobic/physicochemical methods. The results showed that the final destination of the sludge would determine the type and degree of treatment required for the sludge. Physicochemical method generally increases the quantity of sludge solids, thus making the sludge suitable for land reclamation; also, the firmer and denser floc characteristics of the physicochemicallly treated sludge makes the methods a better alternative if conditioned sludge are to be used to reinforce cement for brick making. Biological treatment methods (aerobic and anaerobic) can be used to reduce the quantity of sludge before disposal. Solids destruction is closely related to biogas production. If using sludge as a source of fuel is the focus, the anaerobic biological system may be the best option. Aerobic biological method and the combined aerobic/physicochemical methods are good options for ammonia reduction. Anaerobic biological method is best for improving the nitrogen content and hence the protein content of sludge so as to use the waste sludge as feeds for poultry birds and livestock. Economic values, application and disposal options of the various sludge are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was investigated in rat models of liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4). Treatment of separate groups of rats with 2.5 ml/kg body weight of 5, 10 and 15% aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum for 3 weeks after establishment of CCl 4 induced liver damage, resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) less hepatotoxicity than with CCl 4 alone, as measured by serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. For serum alanine aminotransferase, activity decreased from 68.95 ± 21.38 U/l to 35.77 ± 1.48 U/l, while for aspartate aminotransferase, activity level decreased from 165.65 ± 17.75 to 110.10 ± 3.05 U/l and for alkaline phosphatase, activity level decreased from 364.65 ± 37.75 to 212.74 ± 15.27 U/l. The reduction though not statistically significant (p < 0.05) was dose dependent. Histopathological findings also suggest that treatment with aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum after establishment of CCl 4 -induced liver damage significantly reduced and even reversed the liver damage in the rats. The results of the study indicate that O. gratissimum might be an effective plant hepatoprotector in the diet of patients with hepatopathies.