[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though simple, blood pressure measurement is prone to errors, which may mislead a doctor in the detection, monitoring and treatment of hypertension. In public hospitals, consultants tend to rely on measurements made by other health care providers in the assessment of patients. This report is being presented to highlight the danger patients might be exposed to, when physicians consistently delegate their duties. A physician, who is a known hypertensive, was the subject of this study. His blood pressure was measured by an observer group (control) and an experimental group (hospital staff) independently and compared. There was a significant difference between the two groups of measurement. It is therefore recommended that physicians should measure blood pressures during clinics and ward rounds in order to have a better assessment of their patients. Nurses and junior doctors should be trained in the act of blood pressure measurements and screened periodically for visual and auditory defects.
African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 02/2011; 2(2):666-669.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was investigated in rat models of liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4). Treatment of separate groups of rats with 2.5 ml/kg body weight of 5, 10 and 15% aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum for 3 weeks after establishment of CCl 4 induced liver damage, resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) less hepatotoxicity than with CCl 4 alone, as measured by serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. For serum alanine aminotransferase, activity decreased from 68.95 ± 21.38 U/l to 35.77 ± 1.48 U/l, while for aspartate aminotransferase, activity level decreased from 165.65 ± 17.75 to 110.10 ± 3.05 U/l and for alkaline phosphatase, activity level decreased from 364.65 ± 37.75 to 212.74 ± 15.27 U/l. The reduction though not statistically significant (p < 0.05) was dose dependent. Histopathological findings also suggest that treatment with aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum after establishment of CCl 4 -induced liver damage significantly reduced and even reversed the liver damage in the rats. The results of the study indicate that O. gratissimum might be an effective plant hepatoprotector in the diet of patients with hepatopathies.
African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology 11/2009; 3(11). · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrotermes bellicosus (MB), Imbrasia belina larva (IBL), Oryctes rhinoceros larva (OR) and Rhynchophorus pheonicis (RP) larva oils were extracted, and the oils were physically and chemically characterized. The lipid content recorded for the insects were 31.46 ± 0.57%, 15.16 ± 0.18%, 14.87 ± 0.33% and 23.30 ± 0.33% (wet weight) for MB, IBL, OR and RP respectively. RP and OR insect oils were golden yellow, odourless and fluid at room temperature (26 ± 2°C), while that extracted from IBL and MB were of a lighter yellow colour. The insect lipids all gave a low solidification temperature and high iodine number indicating a relatively high level of unsaturation of the insect/larval oils. Their saponification values were high suggesting the presence of a fair amount of fatty acids but their acid values were low pointing to the fact that these fatty acids were not free but esterified acids. The cholesterol values were also low but highest in MB with a value of 41.8 ± 0.15 mg/100 g lipid. For all the insects, the neutral lipid fraction was the major fraction in the insect oils. RP had the highest neutral lipid fraction of 88.40 while MB had the least value of 69.87. At the same time MB had the highest phospholipids and glycolipid fractions with values of 19.14 and 10.81 respectively while RP had the least phospholipids and glycolipid fractions with values of 8.20 and 2.60 respectively. For IBL, RP and OR (which are insect larvae) the major fatty acids in the oils were palmitic and oleic acids while for MB (mature insect) the major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic acids. The insect/larval oils contained more unsaturated fatty acids which explained the high iodine number, low solidification values and the liquid nature of the oils at room temperature. OR recorded the highest level of unsaturation of 65.61 while MB had the least level of unsaturation of 50.02%. Further analysis revealed a refractive index ranging from 1.1 ± 0.01 to 1.3 ± 0.05, specific gravity of 0.84 ± 0.02 to 0.90 ± 0.01, solidification value of 10 - 14°C, total lipid phosphorus ranging from 31.0 ± 0.25 to 47.18 ± 0.03 μg/gm lipid, acid value of 3.12 ± 0.55 to 3.6 ± 0.06, iodine value of 108 ± 0.15 to 140 ± 0.51, saponification value of 187.17 ± 0.55 to 198.9 ± 0.25 and unsaponifiable matter of 8.11 ± 0.02 to 12.04 ± 0.11. These values when compared with that observed in oils which have been considered to be of high quality and of much use in pharmaceutical industries suggest that these insect oils may have pharmaceutical potential.
African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology 02/2009; 3(2). · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina del on CCl4 induced liver damage was investigated in experimental rats. Treatment of separate groups of rats with 2.5ml/kg body weight of 5%, 10% and 15% aqueous leaf extracts of V. amygdalina for 3 weeks after establishment of CCl4 induced liver damage, resulted in significantly (P<0.05) less hepatotoxicity than CCl4 alone, as measured by serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. The effect of extract though not statistically significant (P>0.05) was close dependent. Histopathological study also showed significant reduction and even reversal of liver damage in the rats. The results of this study show that aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina has a potent anti-hepatotoxic action against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Industrial sludge was obtained from four industries: aluminium extrusion, brewery, pharmaceutical and textile processing factory and treated by aerobic, anaerobic, physicochemical, combined aerobic/physicochemical and combined anaerobic/physicochemical methods. The results showed that the final destination of the sludge would determine the type and degree of treatment required for the sludge. Physicochemical method generally increases the quantity of sludge solids, thus making the sludge suitable for land reclamation; also, the firmer and denser floc characteristics of the physicochemicallly treated sludge makes the methods a better alternative if conditioned sludge are to be used to reinforce cement for brick making. Biological treatment methods (aerobic and anaerobic) can be used to reduce the quantity of sludge before disposal. Solids destruction is closely related to biogas production. If using sludge as a source of fuel is the focus, the anaerobic biological system may be the best option. Aerobic biological method and the combined aerobic/physicochemical methods are good options for ammonia reduction. Anaerobic biological method is best for improving the nitrogen content and hence the protein content of sludge so as to use the waste sludge as feeds for poultry birds and livestock. Economic values, application and disposal options of the various sludge are discussed.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 07/2008; 7(14). · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrotermis bellicosus (a reproductive form of winged termite) oil was extracted, and the oil was physically and chemically characterized. The lipid content of the insect was 31.46�0.57 (wet weight). The oil was a clear, odourless liquid, of a light yellow colour and it was fluid at room temperature (26�2<sup>o</sup>C). Lipid analysis revealed that the insect oil comprised 69.87�0.73% neutral lipid, 19.14�0.06% phospholipid and 10.81�0.40% glycolipids. Further analysis revealed a refractive index of 1.20�0.01, specific gravity of 0.90�0.01, solidification value of 10-14<sup>o</sup>C, total lipid phosphorus of 47.18�0.03 (mg/g lipid), acid value of 3.60�0.06, iodine value of 108.00�0.15, saponification value of 193.40�0.31, unsaponifiable matter of 12.04�0.11, free cholesterol of 8.73�1.01 (mg/100g lipid) and total cholesterol of 47.18�0.03. The unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 51.02% of the total fatty acids whereas the saturated fatty acids constituted 48.98 % of the fatty acids. These values when compared with that observed in oils which have been considered to be of high quality, suggest that Macrotermis bellicosus oil has potentials that could be exploited by the nutritional and pharmaceutical companies.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 03/2007; 6(3). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2007.247.251
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximate and chemical analyses was carried out on the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F) and the observed results used to assess it nutritionally. A high fat content ( 25.30?0.20% wet weight ) rich in the essential fatty acids was observed, while all the essential amino acids were detected in varying amounts in the protein component. Macro-elements like sodium (773.49?1.02 mg/100g), calcium (60.81?0.32 mg/100g) and potassium (26.65?0.24 mg/100g) as well as micro-elements like copper (1.26?0.04 mg/100g), cadmium (0.039?0.022 mg/100g) and zinc (10.57?0.89 mg/100g) were present in significant amounts in the insect larva. The insect larva could form a base for new food /feed products of considerable nutritive value, especially if some level of defatting is done to further increase the relative proportion of the protein component.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 05/2005; 4(5). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2005.287.290
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ______________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The nutritional and biochemical evaluation of the protein quality of some popular insects consumed in Southern Nigeria was investigated. Thirty six (36) young weanling male albino rats (Wistar strain) of about 23 days old, grouped into six (6) groups of six (6) animals per group, were fed separate diets containing 10% protein by weight of the test diets, casein diet and a protein free (corn starch) diet for twenty eight (28) days. The diets contained adequate amounts of all other required nutrients. Results showed that the PER of the insects expressed as percentage of that obtained for casein were 94.26%, 71.31%, 96.72% and 107.38% respectively for Oryctes rhinoceros (OR) larva, Imbrasia belina (IBL) larva, Macrotermis belicosus (MB) and Rhynchophorus pheonicis (RP) larva, while the BV for the different insects were 87.94±4.14, 86.82±3.89, 88.55±7.89, and 88.95±8.14 respectively for OR, IBL, MB and RP. Results obtained for the net protein ratio (NPR), protein retention efficiency (PRE), and true digestibility (TD) for the insects show that they were comparable to values observed for the casein control and the observed slight differences were not significant at 95% confidence limit. The relative weights (g/kg live weight) of the organs namely liver, spleen, heart, kidney and lungs were not affected by feeding the animals using the insects as source of protein (P═0.05). Haematological and toxicological parameters assayed for were not significantly different from the control (P>0.05), but the serum ALP and ALT values were slightly higher while AST values were lower than that of the control (P≤0.05) for animals fed IBL diet. The plasma protein and blood urea levels were similar to values observed for the casein standard diet and the slight differences were not significant at 95% confidence limit. These observed results suggest the insects to be good sources of essential nutrients, which could go a long way in helping to solve most nutritional problems in many developing countries. Entomophagy should be encouraged as a good alternative towards solving the PEM problem facing many third world countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of processing on the protein quality of four popular insects consumed in Southern Nigeria was carried out in the study. A crude protein content (% wet weight) of 35.18 ± 0.10, 8.38 ± 0.31, 11.76 ± 0.90 and 33.41 ± 0.20 were obtained for IBL (Imbrasia belina), RP (Rhynchophorus pheonicis), OR (Oryctes rhinoceros) and MB (Macrotermes belicosus) respectively. These values on a dry weight basis were higher when compared with most conventional protein sources. Amino acid analysis revealed that the proteins contained all the essential amino acids, especially lysine, threonine and methionine which are the major limiting amino acids in the cereal and legume based diets. Biological assays, using weanling, male albino rats, suggested high nutritional and toxicological safety of the insects. The PER for OR, MB, and RP (% of casein) ranged from 94 -111 while IBL values were lower (51 – 71). The TD and BV for all the insects were not significantly different from the control (P ≥ 0.05), though boiling increased the BV of the proteins with the exception of value for raw IBL. The relative weights (g/kg live weight) of the liver, spleen, heart, kidney and lungs were significantly different for IBL only, but the rat serum enzyme activities for the boiled and fried insects showed no significant difference from the control (P≥ 0.05). Processing generally was observed to improve the biological parameters assayed for in the experiment. These results suggest these insects as good sources of essential nutrients which could go a long way in helping to solve most nutritional problems among the populations that consume them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mean concentration of some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) in the muscles and the organs of some common species of fish: Metacembelus Iconnbergii, Clarias lazera, Citarinus citharus, Tilapia zilli and Erpetoichithy were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The mean concentrations of lead in the muscle, kidney and liver were in the ranges of 0.00 – 0.004 mg/kg, 0.010 – 0.015 mg/kg, and 0.004 – 0.010 mg/kg respectively, while that of the surrounding waters were between and 0.001 – 0.005 mg/kg. Cadmium concentrations were in the range of 0.001 – 0.002 mg/kg in the muscles, 0.004 – 0.006 mg/kg in the kidney and 0.002 – 0.004 mg/kg in the liver while that of the surrounding water was 0.001 mg/kg. The levels of mercury were 0.001– 0.002 mg/kg in the muscle, 0.004 – 0.006 mg/kg in the kidney, 0.002 – 0.004 mg/kg in the liver and 0.001 – 0.002 mg/kg in the surrounding waters. From the results, it was observed that the levels of these metals in the fishes were higher than that obtained in the surrounding waters from which the fishes were obtained. The distribution of lead, cadmium and mercury in the fishes investigated showed significant variations with respect to the muscles and the organs. The kidney had higher concentration of the metals compared to the liver, which is in turn higher than that in the muscle. This indicates that the kidney of fish is a better bio-accumulator of heavy metals than the liver and the muscle. The accumulation patterns of heavy metals contaminants in fish depend on uptake and elimination rate. The implications of these contaminants beyond the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural organization (FAO) permissible limits were discussed.