[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. AIM: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. METHODS: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. RESULTS: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. CONCLUSION: Prom2 protrusions primarily localize to lipid rafts and recruit cholesterol into protrusions and away from caveolae, leading to increased phosphorylation of caveolin-1, which inhibits Cdc42-dependent endocytosis. This study provides a new insight for the role for prominins in the regulation of PM lipid organization.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2013; 434(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.03.097 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The targeting of lysosomal transmembrane (TM) proteins from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes is a complex process that is only beginning to be understood. Here, the lysosomal targeting of mucolipin-1 (Mcoln1), the TM protein defective in the autosomal recessive disease, mucolipidosis type IV, was studied by overexpressing full-length and truncated forms of the protein in human cells, followed by detection using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. We demonstrated that a 53-amino acid C-terminal region of Mcoln1 is required for efficient exit from the Golgi. Truncations lacking this region exhibited reduced delivery to lysosomes and decreased proteolytic cleavage of Mcoln1 into characteristic ∼35-kDa fragments, suggesting that this cleavage occurs in lysosomes. In addition, we found that the co-expression of full-length Mcoln1 with kinase-inactive protein kinase D (PKD) 1 or 2 inhibited Mcoln1 Golgi exit and transport to lysosomes and decreased Mcoln1 cleavage. These studies suggest that PKDs play a role in the delivery of some lysosomal resident TM proteins from the Golgi to the lysosomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human remyelination promoting IgM mAbs target oligodendrocytes (OLs) and function in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, their mechanism of action is unknown. This study seeks to identify the cellular mechanism of action of a recombinant human IgM on OL survival.
Binding of rHIgM22 to the surface of rat OLs was studied by co-localization with various markers. RHIgM22-mediated effects on apoptotic signaling in OLs, differentiation markers, and signaling molecules were detected by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation.
RHIgM22 co-localized with integrin β3 but not other integrin β-chains in OLs. Downstream of integrin β3 we identified Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn as a key player of rHIgM22-mediated actions in OLs. Lyn immunoprecipitated in a complex together with integrin αvβ3 and PDGFαR. Lyn expression was 9-fold up-regulated and Lyn activation was 3-fold higher inrHIgM22-treated OL cultures compared with controls. RHIgM22 inhibited apoptotic signaling by greater than 10-fold reduction of caspase-3 and capsase-9 cleavage and reduced by 4-fold expression of differentiation markers MBP and MOG in OLs. SFK inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 inhibited Lyn activity and restored caspase-cleavage in OLs. A human IgM that did not promote remyelination and medium wereused as controls.
rHIgM22 prevented apoptotic signaling andinhibited OL differentiation by Lyn implying thatIgM-mediated remyelination is due toprotection of OPC and OLs rather than promotion of OPC differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin stimulates glucose transport in fat and skeletal muscle cells primarily by inducing the translocation of GLUT4 (glucose transporter isoform 4) to the PM (plasma membrane) from specialized GSVs (GLUT4 storage vesicles). Glycosphingolipids are components of membrane microdomains and are involved in insulin-regulated glucose transport. Cellular glycosphingolipids decrease during adipocyte differentiation and have been suggested to be involved in adipocyte function. In the present study, we investigated the role of glycosphingolipids in regulating GLUT4 translocation. We decreased glycosphingolipids in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors and investigated the effects on GLUT4 translocation using immunocytochemistry, preparation of PM sheets, isolation of GSVs and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) of GLUT4-GFP (green fluorescent protein) in intracellular structures. Glycosphingolipids were located in endosomal vesicles in pre-adipocytes and redistributed to the PM with decreased expression at day 2 after initiation of differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, depletion of glycosphingolipids dramatically accelerated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Although insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) and Akt remained intact in glycosphingolipid-depleted cells, both in vitro budding of GLUT4 vesicles and FRAP of GLUT4-GFP on GSVs were stimulated. Glycosphingolipid depletion also enhanced the insulin-induced translocation of VAMP2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), but not the transferrin receptor or cellubrevin, indicating that the effect of glycosphingolipids was specific to VAMP2-positive GSVs. Our results strongly suggest that decreasing glycosphingolipid levels promotes the formation of GSVs and, thus, GLUT4 translocation. These studies provide a mechanistic basis for recent studies showing that inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis improves glycaemic control and enhances insulin sensitivity in animal models of Type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several clathrin-independent endocytosis mechanisms have been identified that can be distinguished by specific requirements for certain proteins, such as caveolin-1 (Cav1) and the Rho GTPases, RhoA and Cdc42, as well as by specific cargo. Some endocytic pathways may be co-regulated such that disruption of one pathway leads to the up-regulation of another; however, the underlying mechanisms for this are unclear. Cav1 has been reported to function as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI), which inhibits Cdc42 activation. We tested the hypothesis that Cav1 can regulate Cdc42-dependent, fluid phase endocytosis. We demonstrate that Cav1 overexpression decreases fluid phase endocytosis, whereas silencing of Cav1 enhances this pathway. Enhancement of Cav1 phosphorylation using a phosphatase inhibitor reduces Cdc42-regulated pinocytosis while stimulating caveolar endocytosis. Fluid phase endocytosis was inhibited by expression of a putative phosphomimetic mutant, Cav1-Y14E, but not by the phospho-deficient mutant, Cav1-Y14F. Overexpression of Cav2, or a Cav1 mutant in which the GDI region was altered to the corresponding sequence in Cav2, did not suppress fluid phase endocytosis. These results suggest that the Cav1 expression level and phosphorylation state regulates fluid phase endocytosis via the interaction between the Cav1 GDI region and Cdc42. These data define a novel molecular mechanism for co-regulation of two distinct clathrin-independent endocytic pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolae are plasma membrane domains involved in the uptake of certain pathogens and toxins. Internalization of some cell surface integrins occurs via caveolae suggesting caveolae may play a crucial role in modulating integrin-mediated adhesion and cell migration. Here we demonstrate a critical role for gangliosides (sialo-glycosphingolipids) in regulating caveolar endocytosis in human skin fibroblasts. Pretreatment of cells with endoglycoceramidase (cleaves glycosphingolipids) or sialidase (modifies cell surface gangliosides and glycoproteins) selectively inhibited caveolar endocytosis by >70%, inhibited the formation of plasma membrane domains enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol ('lipid rafts'), reduced caveolae and caveolin-1 at the plasma membrane by approximately 80%, and blunted activation of beta1-integrin, a protein required for caveolar endocytosis in these cells. These effects could be reversed by a brief incubation with gangliosides (but not with asialo-gangliosides or other sphingolipids) at 10 degrees C, suggesting that sialo-lipids are critical in supporting caveolar endocytosis. Endoglycoceramidase treatment also caused a redistribution of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, talin, and PIP Kinase Igamma away from focal adhesions. The effects of sialidase or endoglycoceramidase on membrane domains and the distribution of caveolin-1 could be recapitulated by beta1-integrin knockdown. These results suggest that both gangliosides and beta1-integrin are required for maintenance of caveolae and plasma membrane domains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick, type C (NP-C) disease is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral storage disorder in which cholesterol and sphingolipids accumulate. There is no specific treatment for this disease, which is characterized by progressive neurological deterioration, sometimes accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly. We and others have shown that overexpression of certain Rab GTPases corrects defective membrane trafficking and reduces lipid storage in cultured NP-C fibroblasts. Here, we tested the possibility that Rab protein overexpression might also have beneficial effects in vivo using a murine model of NP-C. We first generated several lines of transgenic mice that ubiquitously overexpress Rab9 up to approximately 30-fold more than endogenous levels and found that the transgene expression had no obvious effects on fertility, behavior, or lifespan in normal mice. These transgenic strains were then crossed with NP-C mutant mice to produce NP-C homozygous recessive mice with and without the Rab9 transgene. Life expectancy of the NPC1 homozygous recessive animals was extended up to 22% depending on gender and the transgenic strain that was used. Histological studies and lipid analysis of brain sections indicated that the NP-C mice carrying the Rab9 transgene had dramatically reduced storage of GM(2) and GM(3) gangliosides relative to NP-C animals lacking the transgene. These results demonstrate that Rab9 overexpression has the potential to reduce stored lipids and prolong lifespan in vivo.
American Journal Of Pathology 01/2009; 174(1):14-20. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2009.080660 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolar endocytosis is an important mechanism for the uptake of certain pathogens and toxins and also plays a role in the internalization of some plasma membrane (PM) lipids and proteins. However, the regulation of caveolar endocytosis is not well understood. We previously demonstrated that caveolar endocytosis and beta1-integrin signaling are stimulated by exogenous glycosphingolipids (GSLs). In this study, we show that a synthetic GSL with nonnatural stereochemistry, beta-D-lactosyl-N-octanoyl-L-threo-sphingosine, (1) selectively inhibits caveolar endocytosis and SV40 virus infection, (2) blocks the clustering of lipids and proteins into GSLs and cholesterol-enriched microdomains (rafts) at the PM, and (3) inhibits beta1-integrin activation and downstream signaling. Finally, we show that small interfering RNA knockdown of beta1 integrin in human skin fibroblasts blocks caveolar endocytosis and the stimulation of signaling by a GSL with natural stereochemistry. These experiments identify a new compound that can interfere with biological processes by inhibiting microdomain formation and also identify beta1 integrin as a potential mediator of signaling by GSLs.
The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2007; 176(7):895-901. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200609149 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that glycosphingolipid analogs are internalized primarily via caveolae in various cell types. This
selective internalization was not dependent on particular carbohydrate headgroups or sphingosine chain length. Here, we examine
the role of sphingosine structure in the endocytosis of BODIPY™-tagged lactosylceramide (LacCer) analogs via caveolae. We
found that whereas the LacCer analog with the natural (d-erythro) sphingosine stereochemistry is internalized mainly via caveolae, the non-natural (l-threo) LacCer analog is taken up via clathrin-, RhoA-, and Cdc42-dependent mechanisms and largely excluded from uptake via caveolae.
Unlike the d-erythro-LacCer analog, the l-threo analog did not cluster in membrane microdomains when added at higher concentrations (5–20 μm). In vitro studies using small unilamellar vesicles and giant unilamellar vesicles demonstrated that l-threo-LacCer did not undergo a concentration-dependent excimer shift in fluorescence emission such as that seen with BODIPY™-sphingolipids
with natural stereochemistry. Molecular modeling studies suggest that in d-erythro-LacCer, the disaccharide moiety extends above and in the same plane as the sphingosine hydrocarbon chain, while in l-threo-LacCer the carbohydrate group is nearly perpendicular to the hydrocarbon chain. Together, these results suggest that the altered
stereochemistry of the sphingosine group in l-threo-LacCer results in a perturbed structure, which is unable to pack closely with natural membrane lipids, leading to a reduced
inclusion in plasma membrane microdomains and decreased uptake by caveolar endocytosis. These findings demonstrate the importance
of the sphingolipid stereochemistry in the formation of membrane microdomains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingolipids (SLs) play important roles in membrane structure and cell function. Here, we examine the SL requirements of various endocytic mechanisms using a mutant cell line and pharmacological inhibitors to disrupt SL biosynthesis. First, we demonstrated that in Chinese hamster ovary cells we could distinguish three distinct mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis (caveolar, RhoA, and Cdc42 dependent) which differed in cargo, sensitivity to pharmacological agents, and dominant negative proteins. General depletion of SLs inhibited endocytosis by each clathrin-independent mechanism, whereas clathrin-dependent uptake was unaffected. Depletion of glycosphingolipids (GSLs; a subgroup of SLs) selectively blocked caveolar endocytosis and decreased caveolin-1 and caveolae at the plasma membrane. Caveolar endocytosis and PM caveolae could be restored in GSL-depleted cells by acute addition of exogenous GSLs. Disruption of RhoA- and Cdc42-regulated endocytosis by SL depletion was shown to be related to decreased targeting of these Rho proteins to the plasma membrane and could be partially restored by exogenous sphingomyelin but not GSLs. Both the in vivo membrane targeting and in vitro binding to artificial lipid vesicles of RhoA and Cdc42 were shown to be dependent upon sphingomyelin. These results provide the first evidence that SLs are differentially required for distinct mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 08/2006; 17(7):3197-210. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E05-12-1101 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycosphingolipids are known to play roles in integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration; however, the mechanisms by which glycosphingolipids affect integrins are unknown. Here, we show that addition of the glycosphingolipid, C8-lactosylceramide (C8-LacCer), or free cholesterol to human fibroblasts at 10 degrees C causes the formation of glycosphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane domains as shown by visualizing a fluorescent glycosphingolipid probe, BODIPY-LacCer, incorporated into the plasma membrane of living cells. Addition of C8-LacCer or cholesterol to cells initiated the clustering of beta1-integrins within these glycosphingolipid-enriched domains and the activation of the beta1-integrins as assessed using a HUTS antibody that only binds activated integrin. On warming to 37 degrees C, beta1-integrins were rapidly internalized via caveolar endocytosis in cells treated with C8-LacCer or cholesterol, whereas little beta1-integrin was endocytosed in untreated fibroblasts. Incubation of cells with C8-LacCer or cholesterol followed by warm-up caused src activation, a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, translocation of RhoA GTPase away from the plasma membrane as visualized using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and transient cell detachment. These studies show that LacCer can regulate integrin function both by modulating integrin clustering in microdomains and by regulating integrin endocytosis via caveolae. Our findings suggest the possibility that aberrant levels of glycosphingolipids found in cancer cells may influence cell attachment events by direct effects on integrin clustering and internalization.
Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(18):8233-41. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0803 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a genetic disorder in which patient cells exhibit lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids (SLs) caused by defects in either NPC1 or NPC2 proteins. We previously demonstrated that NPC1 human skin fibroblasts overexpressing endosomal Rab proteins (Rab7 or Rab9) showed a correction in the storage disease phenotype. In the current study, we used protein transduction to further investigate Rab9-mediated reduction of stored lipids in NPC cells. Recombinant human Rab9 fused with the herpes simplex virus VP22 protein fragment was overexpressed, purified, and added to culture medium to induce protein transduction. When VP22-Rab9 was transduced into NPC1 fibroblasts, nearly all cells showed significant reduction in cellular free cholesterol levels, with no cytotoxicity up to 5 microM. A fraction of the VP22-Rab9 that was transduced into the cells was shown to bind to rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, suggesting that this pool of VP22-Rab9 had become prenylated. The reduction in cellular free cholesterol was associated with correction of abnormal intracellular trafficking of BODIPY-lactosylceramide and an increase of sterols in the culture media. The clearance of lysosomal free cholesterol was also associated with a decrease in LDL-receptor levels. In addition, we demonstrated reduction of intracellular cholesterol by VP22-Rab9 transduction in NPC2 fibroblasts and in cultured mouse NPC1 neurons. These observations provide important new information about the correction of membrane traffic in NPC cells by Rab9 overexpression and may lead to new therapeutic approaches for treatment of this disease.
The FASEB Journal 10/2005; 19(11):1558-60. DOI:10.1096/fj.04-2714fje · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) have trophic action on cells expressing wild type A or B CCK receptors. Potential relevance to pancreatic and colonic cancers was raised by the demonstration of a misspliced type B CCK receptor that, when expressed in Balb3T3 cells, had constitutive activity to stimulate intracellular calcium. We attempted to confirm and extend this observation in CHO cells by establishing lines expressing similar densities of variant or wild type B CCK receptor. While both were capable of normal binding and agonist-induced signaling, neither expressed constitutive signaling and both had similar basal growth. Agonist stimulation of cells expressing misspliced receptor had greater increases in calcium and greater growth rates than control cells despite similar MAP kinase phosphorylation responses. Thus, this variant receptor can potentiate peptide-stimulated signaling and trophic action and may contribute to the proliferation of neoplasms expressing it.
Cancer Letters 06/2005; 222(1):95-105. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2004.09.008 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Internalization of some plasma membrane constituents, bacterial toxins, and viruses occurs via caveolae; however, the factors that regulate caveolar internalization are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a brief treatment of cultured cells with natural or synthetic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) or elevation of cholesterol (either by acute treatment with mbeta-cyclodextrin/cholesterol or by alteration of growth conditions) dramatically stimulates caveolar endocytosis with little or no effect on other endocytic mechanisms. These treatments also stimulated the movement of GFP-labeled vesicles in cells transfected with caveolin-1-GFP and reduced the number of surface-connected caveolae seen by electron microscopy. In contrast, overexpression of caveolin-1 decreased caveolar uptake, but treatment with GSLs reversed this effect and stimulated caveolar endocytosis. Stimulation of caveolar endocytosis did not occur using ceramide or phosphatidylcholine and was not due to GSL degradation because similar results were obtained using a nonhydrolyzable GSL analog. Stimulated caveolar endocytosis required src kinase and PKC-alpha activity as shown by i) use of pharmacological inhibitors, ii) expression of kinase inactive src or dominant negative PKCalpha, and iii) stimulation of src kinase activity upon addition of GSLs or cholesterol. These results suggest that caveolar endocytosis is regulated by a balance of caveolin-1, cholesterol, and GSLs at the plasma membrane.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 08/2004; 15(7):3114-22. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E04-03-0189 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dimerization of several G protein-coupled receptors has recently been described, but little is known about its clinical and functional relevance. Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin are structurally related gastrointestinal and neuronal peptides whose functions are mediated by two structurally related receptors in this superfamily, the type A and B CCK receptors. We previously demonstrated spontaneous homodimerization of type A CCK receptors and the dissociation of those complexes by agonist occupation (Cheng, Z. J., and Miller, L. J. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48040-48047). Here, for the first time, we also demonstrate spontaneous homodimerization of type B CCK receptors, as well as heterodimerization of that receptor with the type A CCK receptor. Unlike type A CCK receptor dimers, the homodimerization of type B CCK receptors was not affected by ligand occupation. However, although heterodimers of type A and B CCK receptors bound natural agonists normally, they exhibited unusual functional and regulatory characteristics. Such complexes demonstrated enhanced agonist-stimulated cellular signaling and delayed agonist-induced receptor internalization. As a likely consequence, agonist-stimulated cell growth was markedly enhanced in cells simultaneously expressing both of these receptors. Our results provide the first evidence that heterodimerization of G protein-coupled receptors can form a more "powerful" signaling unit, which has potential clinical significance in promoting cell growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work was designed to evaluate the effect of cAMP on insulin gene regulation. We studied the effects of forskolin on insulin gene transcription in the INS-1 beta-cell line, confirming key results in primary cultures of human islet cells. Forskolin increased intracellular cAMP and cAMP-responsive element-binding activity. Insulin gene transcription was studied using a reporter construct in which the human insulin promoter was fused to luciferase. When cells were treated with forskolin for 12 h, insulin promoter activity was decreased 2- to 3-fold, whereas islet amyloid polypeptide promoter activity was significantly increased. This effect of forskolin on the insulin gene was time- and concentration-dependent, and was mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP. Mutagenesis of the CRE-like elements in the insulin promoter had no effect on the forskolin-induced suppression, but dramatically decreased basal insulin promoter activity. Inhibition of PKA with H-89 also did not reverse the forskolin-induced suppression of insulin transcription. However, this effect was completely reversed by inhibition of cellular MAP kinase activity with PD98059 or U0126. These results demonstrate that forskolin suppresses insulin transcription in INS-1 cells through a PKA-independent mechanism that probably involves MAP kinase signalling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms for the regulation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) gene expression remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of glucose and forskolin on IAPP gene regulation in the INS-1 islet beta-cell line. Both glucose and forskolin increased the level of expression of this gene, as measured by Northern blot analysis, and increased IAPP gene transcription in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as demonstrated in a reporter gene assay. Although inhibition of protein kinase A activity with H-89 eliminated the effect of forskolin on this gene, the glucose effect was unaffected. This supported the predominant use of a protein kinase A-independent signaling pathway for glucose regulation of the IAPP gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further indicated that glucose and forskolin regulated expression of this gene by targeting different elements of the promoter. Mutation of the cAMP regulatory element flanking the IAPP coding region resulted in the loss of most of the forskolin-stimulated IAPP gene promoter activity, whereas glucose-enhanced IAPP gene transcription was unaffected. These results demonstrate parallel and distinct regulatory pathways involved in glucose- and forskolin-induced IAPP gene expression in this model beta-cell system.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2001; 281(5):E938-45. · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modifications of mucosal phospholipids have been detected in samples from patients with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis. These alterations appear secondary to increased phospholipase A2 activity (PLA2). The cytosolic form of this enzyme (cPLA2), normally involved in cellular signaling and growth, has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was
to investigate cPLA2 expression and PLA2 activity in the gastric mucosae of patients with and without H. pylori infection. In gastric biopsies from 10H. pylori-positive patients, cPLA2 levels, levels of mRNA as determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, levels of protein as determined by immunohistochemistry,
and total PLA2 activity were higher than in 10 H. pylori-negative gastritis patients. To clarify whether H. pylori had a direct effect on the cellular expression of cPLA2, we studied cPLA2 expression in vitro with different human epithelial cell lines, one from a patient with larynx carcinoma (i.e., HEp-2 cells)
and two from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (i.e., AGS and MKN 28 cells), incubated with differentH. pylori strains. The levels of cPLA2, mRNA, and protein expression were unchanged in Hep-2 cells independently of cellular adhesion or invasion of the bacteria.
Moreover, no change in cPLA2 protein expression was observed in AGS or MKN 28 cells treated with wild-type H. pylori. In conclusion, our study shows increased cPLA2 expression and PLA2activity in the gastric mucosae of patients with H. pyloriinfection and no change in epithelial cell lines exposed to H. pylori.
Infection and Immunity 10/2001; 69(9):5857-63. DOI:10.1128/IAI.69.9.5857-5863.2001 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in the molecular structure or organ distribution of receptors can limit the usefulness of a given species for drug studies. In this work, we have studied cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors in cynomolgus monkey, an animal model useful for preclinical testing. The type A CCK receptor cDNA was cloned and predicted to encode a 428 amino acid peptide that was 98% identical to the human receptor. Only 2 of the 10 residues that were distinct from the human receptor were not present in other cloned CCK receptor species. A Chinese hamster ovary cell line that stably expressed this receptor was developed. The cynomolgus receptor expressed in this environment was functionally indistinguishable from the human receptor, binding CCK with high affinity [inhibition constant (K(I)) = 1.8 +/- 0.5 nM] and exhibiting a potent intracellular calcium signaling response to this hormone (EC(50) = 6.6 +/- 2.1 pM). Like the human type A CCK receptor, this receptor was expressed prominently in monkey gallbladder and stomach and was expressed in low levels in brain and pancreas. The type B CCK receptor cDNA was cloned from stomach and brain (450 residue receptor that is 96% identical to the human receptor), where it was highly expressed yet was undetectable in gallbladder or pancreas. This work confirms the relevance of the cynomolgus species for preclinical testing of drugs acting on the type A CCK receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Affinity labeling is a powerful tool to establish spatial approximations between photolabile residues within a ligand and its receptor. Here, we have utilized a cholecystokinin (CCK) analogue with a photolabile benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) sited in position 24, adjacent to the pharmacophoric domain of this hormone (positions 27-33). This probe was a fully efficacious agonist that bound to the CCK receptor saturably and with high affinity (K(i) = 8.9 +/- 1.1 nm). It covalently labeled the CCK receptor either within the amino terminus (between Asn(10) and Lys(37)) or within the third extracellular loop (Glu(345)), as demonstrated by proteolytic peptide mapping, deglycosylation, micropurification, and Edman degradation sequencing. Truncation of the receptor to eliminate residues 1-30 had no detrimental effect on CCK binding, stimulated signaling, or affinity labeling through a residue within the pharmacophore (Bpa(29)) but resulted in elimination of the covalent attachment of the Bpa(24) probe to the receptor. Thus, the distal amino terminus of the CCK receptor resides above the docked ligand, compressing the portion of the peptide extending beyond its pharmacophore toward the receptor core. Exposure of wild type and truncated receptor constructs to extracellular trypsin damaged the truncated construct but not the wild type receptor, suggesting that this domain also may play a protective role. Use of these additional insights into molecular approximations provided key constraints for molecular modeling of the peptide-receptor complex, supporting the counterclockwise organization of the transmembrane helical domains.