E L Kemper

University of Campinas, Campinas, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (12)97.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Over 40,000 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) consensus sequences assembled from 237,954 expressed sequence tags were compared with the protein and DNA sequences from other angiosperms, including the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). Approximately two-thirds of the sugarcane transcriptome have similar sequences in Arabidopsis. These sequences may represent a core set of proteins or protein domains that are conserved among monocots and eudicots and probably encode for essential angiosperm functions. The remaining sequences represent putative monocot-specific genetic material, one-half of which were found only in sugarcane. These monocot-specific cDNAs represent either novelties or, in many cases, fast-evolving sequences that diverged substantially from their eudicot homologs. The wide comparative genome analysis presented here provides information on the evolutionary changes that underlie the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Our comparative analysis also led to the identification of several not yet annotated putative genes and possible gene loss events in Arabidopsis.
    Plant physiology 04/2004; 134(3):951-9. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To contribute to our understanding of the genome complexity of sugarcane, we undertook a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) program. More than 260,000 cDNA clones were partially sequenced from 26 standard cDNA libraries generated from different sugarcane tissues. After the processing of the sequences, 237,954 high-quality ESTs were identified. These ESTs were assembled into 43,141 putative transcripts. Of the assembled sequences, 35.6% presented no matches with existing sequences in public databases. A global analysis of the whole SUCEST data set indicated that 14,409 assembled sequences (33% of the total) contained at least one cDNA clone with a full-length insert. Annotation of the 43,141 assembled sequences associated almost 50% of the putative identified sugarcane genes with protein metabolism, cellular communication/signal transduction, bioenergetics, and stress responses. Inspection of the translated assembled sequences for conserved protein domains revealed 40,821 amino acid sequences with 1415 Pfam domains. Reassembling the consensus sequences of the 43,141 transcripts revealed a 22% redundancy in the first assembling. This indicated that possibly 33,620 unique genes had been identified and indicated that >90% of the sugarcane expressed genes were tagged.
    Genome Research 12/2003; 13(12):2725-35. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was the first plant pathogen to be completely sequenced. This species causes several economically important plant diseases, including citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). Analysis of the genomic sequence of X. fastidiosa revealed a 12 kb DNA fragment containing an operon closely related to the gum operon of Xanthomonas campestris. The presence of all genes involved in the synthesis of sugar precursors, existence of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production regulators in the genome, and the absence of three of the X. campestris gum genes suggested that X. fastidiosa is able to synthesize an EPS different from that of xanthan gum. This novel EPS probably consists of polymerized tetrasaccharide repeating units assembled by the sequential addition of glucose-1-phosphate, glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid on a polyprenol phosphate carrier.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 10/2001; 203(2):165-71. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax was determined. This genome is 16,022 bp in size and corresponds to a typical Brachycera mtDNA. A Serine start codon for COI and incomplete termination codons for COII, NADH 5 and NADH 4 genes were described. The nucleotide composition of C. hominivorax mtDNA is 77% AT-rich, reflected in the predominance of AT-rich codons in protein-coding genes. Non-optimal codon usage was commonly observed in C. hominivorax mitochondrial genes. Phylogenetic analysis distributed the Acalypterate species as a monophyletic group and assembled the C. hominivorax (Calyptratae) and the Acalyptratae in a typical Brachycera cluster. The identification of diagnostic restriction sites on the sequenced mitochondrial genome and the correlation with previous RFLP analysis are discussed.
    Insect Molecular Biology 11/2000; 9(5):521-9. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    P Arruda, E L Kemper, F Papes, A Leite
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    ABSTRACT: Lysine is an essential amino acid for mammals but its concentration in cereals, one of our main food sources, is low. Research over the past 40 years has unraveled many biochemical and molecular details of the aspartic acid pathway, which is the main route of lysine biosynthesis in plants. However, genetic manipulation of this pathway has not been successful at producing high-lysine seeds. This is because lysine, instead of being accumulated, is degraded via the saccharopine pathway. Recent work has increased our knowledge of this pathway, including both the enzymes involved and their regulation.
    Trends in Plant Science 09/2000; 5(8):324-30. · 11.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis--a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign putative functions to 47% of the 2,904 predicted coding regions. Efficient metabolic functions are predicted, with sugars as the principal energy and carbon source, supporting existence in the nutrient-poor xylem sap. The mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and virulence involve toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems, as well as bacterium-bacterium and bacterium-host interactions mediated by a range of proteins. Orthologues of some of these proteins have only been identified in animal and human pathogens; their presence in X. fastidiosa indicates that the molecular basis for bacterial pathogenicity is both conserved and independent of host. At least 83 genes are bacteriophage-derived and include virulence-associated genes from other bacteria, providing direct evidence of phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.
    Nature 08/2000; 406(6792):151-9. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human growth hormone was expressed in transgenic tobacco seeds using the monocot tissue-specific promoter from sorghum -kafirin seed storage protein gene. During tobacco seed ripening, the expressed hormone was directed to the endoplasmic reticulum by a signal peptide from a Coix prolamin and was secreted into the apoplastic space, where it accounted for 0.16% of total soluble seed protein. The expressed hormone has the same amino acid sequence and receptor-binding properties as the native mature hormone.
    Molecular Breeding 01/2000; 6(1):47-53. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lysine-oxoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase are enzymic activities that catalyse the first two steps of lysine degradation through the saccharopine pathway in upper eukaryotes. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a bifunctional enzyme bearing domains corresponding to these two enzymic activities. We partly purified those activities from mouse liver and showed for the first time that both a bifunctional lysine-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase and a monofunctional saccharopine dehydrogenase are likely to be present in this organ. Northern analyses indicate the existence of two mRNA species in liver and kidney. The longest molecule, 3.4 kb in size, corresponds to the isolated cDNA and encodes the bifunctional enzyme. The 2.4 kb short transcript probably codes for the monofunctional dehydrogenase. Sequence analyses show that the bifunctional enzyme is likely to be a mitochondrial protein. Furthermore, enzymic and expression analyses suggest that lysine-oxoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase levels increase in livers of mice under starvation. Lysine-injected mice also show an increase in lysine-oxoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase levels.
    Biochemical Journal 01/2000; 344 Pt 2:555-63. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis—a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign putative functions to 47% of the 2,904 predicted coding regions. Efficient metabolic functions are predicted, with sugars as the principal energy and carbon source, supporting existence in the nutrient-poor xylem sap. The mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and virulence involve toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems, as well as bacterium–bacterium and bacterium–host interactions mediated by a range of proteins. Orthologues of some of these proteins have only been identified in animal and human pathogens; their presence in X. fastidiosa indicates that the molecular basis for bacterial pathogenicity is both conserved and independent of host. At least 83 genes are bacteriophage-derived and include virulence-associated genes from other bacteria, providing direct evidence of phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.
    Nature. 01/2000; 406(6792):151-157.
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    ABSTRACT: We have isolated a cDNA clone, designated ZLKRSDH, encoding the bifunctional enzyme lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH) from maize. The predicted polypeptide has an N-terminal LKR domain and a C-terminal SDH domain that are similar to the yeast LYS1 and LYS9 monofunctional proteins, respectively. The maize LKR/SDH protein is located in the cytoplasm of subaleurone endosperm cell layers. Transcripts and polypeptides as well as enzyme activities showed an upregulation and downregulation during endosperm development. The developmental expression of ZLKRSDH was examined in normal and opaque2 seeds. In the mutant endosperm, mRNA levels were reduced by >90%, with concomitant reductions in polypeptide levels and LKR/SDH activity. These results suggest that lysine levels in the endosperm are likely to be controlled at the transcriptional level by the Opaque2 transcription factor.
    The Plant Cell 11/1999; 11(10):1981-94. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lysine-oxoglutarate reductase (LOR) domain of the bifunctional enzyme lysine-oxoglutarate reductase-saccharopine dehydrogenase (LOR/SDH) from maize endosperm was shown to be activated by Ca2+, high salt concentration, organic solvents and Mg2+. The Ca2+-dependent enhancement of LOR activity was inhibited by the calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W7) and calmidazolium. Limited proteolysis was used to assess the structure/function relationship of the enzyme. Digestion with elastase separated the bifunctional 125-kDa polypeptide into two polypeptides of 65 kDa and 57 kDa, containing the functional domains of LOR and SDH, respectively. Proteolysis did not affect SDH activity, while LOR showed a time-dependent and protease-concentration-dependent inactivation followed by reactivation. Prolonged digestion or increasing amounts of elastase produced a complex pattern of limit polypeptides derived from additional cleavage sites within the 65-kDa (LOR) and 57-kDa (SDH) domains. The SDH-containing polypeptides inhibited the enzymatic activity of LOR-containing polypeptides. When separated from the SDH domain by limited proteolysis and ion-exchange chromatography, the LOR domain retained its Ca2+ activation property, but was no longer activated by high salt concentrations. These results suggest that the LOR activity of the native enzyme is normally inhibited such that after modulation, the enzyme undergoes a conformational alteration to expose the catalytic domain for substrate binding.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 06/1998; 253(3):720-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Edson Luis Kemper, Márcio Joséda Silva, Paulo Arruda
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    ABSTRACT: Immature maize (Zea mays L.) embryos of the tropical inbred line Cat-100-6, plated in callus induction medium for short periods, were used to study the effect of microprojectile bombardment parameters and osmotic treatment on the transformation of embryogenic competent cells. Somatic embryogenesis in this material arose from sub-epidermal cell clusters located at the third or deeper cell layer. Experiments were carried out focusing on the transformation of these cell clusters following microprojectile bombardment. Physical conditions such as particle delivering method, particle size, helium pressure and target distance were analyzed in factorial experiments. The best condition which permitted the transformation of embryogenic cell clusters at relatively high frequency was found to cause deleterious tissue damage because of the bombardment at high pressure and short target distance. Tissue damage as successfully prevented by the addition of mannitol in the culture medium before and after bombardment.
    Plant Science. 01/1996;