[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced resources for genome-assisted research in barley (Hordeum vulgare) including a whole genome shotgun assembly and an integrated physical map have recently become available. These have made studies that aim to assess genetic diversity or to isolate single genes possible by whole genome resequencing and in silico variant detection. However such an approach remains expensive given the 5 Gb size of the barley genome. Targeted sequencing of the mRNA-coding exome reduces barley genomic complexity more than 50-fold, thus dramatically reducing this heavy sequencing and analysis load. We have developed and employed an in-solution hybridization-based sequence capture platform to selectively enrich for a 61.6 megabase coding sequence target that includes predicted genes from the genome assembly of the cultivar Morex as well as publicly available full length cDNAs and de novo assembled RNAseq consensus sequence contigs. The platform provides a highly specific capture with substantial and reproducible enrichment of targeted exons both for cultivated barley and related species. We show that this exome capture platform provides a clear path towards a broader and deeper understanding of the natural variation residing in the mRNA-coding part of the barley genome and will thus constitute a valuable resource for applications such as mapping-by-sequencing and genetic diversity analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is a devastating disease that can cause severe yield losses. A new Pgt race designated Ug99 has overcome most of the widely used resistance genes and is threatening major wheat production areas. Here, we demonstrate that the Sr35 gene from Triticum monococcum is a coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat gene that confers near-immunity to Ug99 and related races. This gene is absent in the A-genome diploid donor and in polyploid wheat, but is effective when transferred from T. monococcum to polyploid wheat. The cloning of Sr35 opens the door to the use of biotechnological approaches to control this devastating disease and to the analyses of the molecular interactions that define the wheat-rust pathosystem.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high level of identity among duplicated homoeologous genomes in tetraploid pasta wheat presents substantial challenges for de novo transcriptome assembly. To solve this problem, we develop a specialized bioinformatics workflow that optimizes transcriptome assembly and separation of merged homoeologs. To evaluate our strategy, we sequence and assemble the transcriptome of one of the diploid ancestors of pasta wheat, and compare both assemblies with a benchmark set of 13,472 full-length, non-redundant bread wheat cDNAs.
A total of 489 million 100 bp paired-end reads from tetraploid wheat assemble in 140,118 contigs, including 96% of the benchmark cDNAs. We used a comparative genomics approach to annotate 66,633 open reading frames. The multiple k-mer assembly strategy increases the proportion of cDNAs assembled full-length in a single contig by 22% relative to the best single k-mer size. Homoeologs are separated using a post-assembly pipeline that includes polymorphism identification, phasing of SNPs, read sorting, and re-assembly of phased reads. Using a reference set of genes, we determine that 98.7% of SNPs analyzed are correctly separated by phasing.
Our study shows that de novo transcriptome assembly of tetraploid wheat benefit from multiple k-mer assembly strategies more than diploid wheat. Our results also demonstrate that phasing approaches originally designed for heterozygous diploid organisms can be used to separate the close homoeologous genomes of tetraploid wheat. The predicted tetraploid wheat proteome and gene models provide a valuable tool for the wheat research community and for those interested in comparative genomic studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of new sequencing technologies has provided fast and cost-efficient strategies for high-resolution mapping of complex genomes. Though these approaches hold great promise to accelerate genome analysis, their application in studying genetic variation in wheat has been hindered by the complexity of its polyploid genome. Here, we applied the next-generation sequencing of a wheat doubled-haploid mapping population for high-resolution gene mapping and for ordering shotgun sequence contigs of a flow-sorted wheat chromosome. A bioinformatical pipeline was developed for reliable variant analysis of sequence data generated for polyploid wheat mapping populations. The results of variant mapping were consistent with the results obtained using the wheat 9,000 SNP iSelect assay. A reference map of the wheat genome integrating 2,740 gene-associated SNPs from the wheat iSelect assay, 1,351 DArTs, 118 SSR/STS, and 416,856 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers was developed. By analyzing the sequenced megabase-size regions of the wheat genome we showed that mapped markers are located within 40-100 kb from genes providing a possibility for high-resolution mapping at the level of a single gene. In our population, gene loci controlling a seed color phenotype co-segregated with 2,459 markers including one that was located within the R gene. The developed map was successfully used to order the contigs of a flow-sorted wheat chromosome. We demonstrate that the high-density reference map presented here is a useful resource for gene mapping and linking physical and genetic maps of the wheat genome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Domesticated crops experience strong human-mediated selection aimed at developing high-yielding varieties adapted to local conditions. To detect regions of the wheat genome subject to selection during improvement, we developed a high-throughput array to interrogate 9,000 gene-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a worldwide sample of 2,994 accessions of hexaploid wheat including landraces and modern cultivars. Using a SNP-based diversity map we characterized the impact of crop improvement on genomic and geographic patterns of genetic diversity. We found evidence of a small population bottleneck and extensive use of ancestral variation often traceable to founders of cultivars from diverse geographic regions. Analyzing genetic differentiation among populations and the extent of haplotype sharing, we identified allelic variants subjected to selection during improvement. Selective sweeps were found around genes involved in the regulation of flowering time and phenology. An introgression of a wild relative-derived gene conferring resistance to a fungal pathogen was detected by haplotype-based analysis. Comparing selective sweeps identified in different populations, we show that selection likely acts on distinct targets or multiple functionally equivalent alleles in different portions of the geographic range of wheat. The majority of the selected alleles were present at low frequency in local populations, suggesting either weak selection pressure or temporal variation in the targets of directional selection during breeding probably associated with changing agricultural practices or environmental conditions. The developed SNP chip and map of genetic variation provide a resource for advancing wheat breeding and supporting future population genomic and genome-wide association studies in wheat.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modern genomics approaches rely on the availability of high-throughput and high-density genotyping platforms. A major breakthrough in wheat genotyping was the development of an SNP array. In this study, we used a diverse panel of 172 elite European winter wheat lines to evaluate the utility of the SNP array for genomic analyses in wheat germplasm derived from breeding programs. We investigated population structure and genetic relatedness and found that the results obtained with SNP and SSR markers differ. This suggests that additional research is required to determine the optimum approach for the investigation of population structure and kinship. Our analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) showed that LD decays within approximately 5-10 cM. Moreover, we found that LD is variable along chromosomes. Our results suggest that the number of SNPs needs to be increased further to obtain a higher coverage of the chromosomes. Taken together, SNPs can be a valuable tool for genomics approaches and for a knowledge-based improvement of wheat.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 02/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cycles of whole genome duplication (WGD) and diploidization are hallmarks of eukaryotic genome evolution and speciation. Polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) has had a massive increase in genome size largely due to recent WGDs. How these processes may impact the dynamics of gene evolution was studied by comparing the patterns of gene structure changes, alternative splicing (AS), and codon substitution rates among wheat and the model grass genomes. In orthologous gene sets, significantly more acquired and lost exonic sequences were detected in wheat than in model grasses. In wheat, thirty five percent of these gene structure rearrangements resulted in frameshift mutations and premature termination codons (PTCs). An increased codon mutation rate in the wheat lineage compared to Brachypodium was found for 17% of orthologs. Discovery of PTCs in 38% of expressed genes was consistent with ongoing pseudogenization of the wheat genome. The rates of AS within the individual wheat subgenomes (25%) were similar to diploid plants. However, we uncovered a high level of AS pattern divergence (42%) between the duplicated homoeologous copies of genes. Our results are consistent with the accelerated accumulation of AS isoforms, non-synonymous mutations and gene structure rearrangements in the wheat lineage, likely due to genetic redundancy created by WGDs. Whereas these processes mostly contribute to degeneration of a duplicated genome and its diploidization, they have the potential to facilitate the origin of new functional variation, which, upon selection in the evolutionary lineage, may play an important role in the origin of novel traits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequencing projects using a clone-by-clone approach require the availability of a robust physical map. The SNaPshot technology, based on pair-wise comparisons of restriction fragments sizes, has been used recently to build the first physical map of a wheat chromosome and to complete the maize physical map. However, restriction fragments sizes shared randomly between two non-overlapping BACs often lead to chimerical contigs and mis-assembled BACs in such large and repetitive genomes. Whole Genome Profiling (WGP™) was developed recently as a new sequence-based physical mapping technology and has the potential to limit this problem.
A subset of the wheat 3B chromosome BAC library covering 230 Mb was used to establish a WGP physical map and to compare it to a map obtained with the SNaPshot technology. We first adapted the WGP-based assembly methodology to cope with the complexity of the wheat genome. Then, the results showed that the WGP map covers the same length than the SNaPshot map but with 30% less contigs and, more importantly with 3.5 times less mis-assembled BACs. Finally, we evaluated the benefit of integrating WGP tags in different sequence assemblies obtained after Roche/454 sequencing of BAC pools. We showed that while WGP tag integration improves assemblies performed with unpaired reads and with paired-end reads at low coverage, it does not significantly improve sequence assemblies performed at high coverage (25x) with paired-end reads.
Our results demonstrate that, with a suitable assembly methodology, WGP builds more robust physical maps than the SNaPshot technology in wheat and that WGP can be adapted to any genome. Moreover, WGP tag integration in sequence assemblies improves low quality assembly. However, to achieve a high quality draft sequence assembly, a sequencing depth of 25x paired-end reads is required, at which point WGP tag integration does not provide additional scaffolding value. Finally, we suggest that WGP tags can support the efficient sequencing of BAC pools by enabling reliable assignment of sequence scaffolds to their BAC of origin, a feature that is of great interest when using BAC pooling strategies to reduce the cost of sequencing large genomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of grass species to adapt to various habitats is attributed to the dynamic nature of their genomes, which have been shaped by multiple rounds of ancient and recent polyploidization. To gain a better understanding of the nature and extent of variation in functionally relevant regions of a polyploid genome, we developed a sequence capture assay to compare exonic sequences of allotetraploid wheat accessions.
A sequence capture assay was designed for the targeted re-sequencing of 3.5 Mb exon regions that surveyed a total of 3,497 genes from allotetraploid wheat. These data were used to describe SNPs, copy number variation and homoeologous sequence divergence in coding regions. A procedure for variant discovery in the polyploid genome was developed and experimentally validated. About 1% and 24% of discovered SNPs were loss-of-function and non-synonymous mutations, respectively. Under-representation of replacement mutations was identified in several groups of genes involved in translation and metabolism. Gene duplications were predominant in a cultivated wheat accession, while more gene deletions than duplications were identified in wild wheat.
We demonstrate that, even though the level of sequence similarity between targeted polyploid genomes and capture baits can bias enrichment efficiency, exon capture is a powerful approach for variant discovery in polyploids. Our results suggest that allopolyploid wheat can accumulate new variation in coding regions at a high rate. This process has the potential to broaden functional diversity and generate new phenotypic variation that eventually can play a critical role in the origin of new adaptations and important agronomic traits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in comparative genomics have provided significant opportunities for analysis of genetic diversity in species with limited genomic resources, such as the genus Lens. Medicago truncatula expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were aligned with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence to identify conserved exon sequences and splice sites in the ESTs. Conserved primers (CPs) based on M. truncatula EST sequences flanking one or more introns were then designed. A total of 22% of the CPs produced polymerase chain reaction amplicons in lentil and were used to sequence amplicons in 175 wild and 133 domesticated lentil accessions. Analysis of the sequences confirmed that L. nigricans and L. ervoides are well-defined species at the DNA sequence level. Lens culinaris subsp. odemensis, L. culinaris subsp. tomentosus, and L. lamottei may constitute a single taxon pending verification with crossability experiments. Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis is the progenitor of domesticated lentil, L. culinaris subsp. culinaris (as proposed before), but a more specific area of origin can be suggested in southern Turkey. We were also able to detect the divergence, following domestication, of the domesticated gene pool into overlapping large-seeded (megasperma) and small-seeded (microsperma) groups. Lentil domestication led to a loss of genetic diversity of approximately 40%. The approach followed in this research has allowed us to rapidly exploit sequence information from model plant species for the study of genetic diversity of a crop such as lentil with limited genomic resources.
The Journal of heredity 03/2011; 102(3):315-29. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing the nutrient concentration of wheat grains is important to ameliorate nutritional deficiencies in many parts of the world. Proteins and nutrients in the wheat grain are largely derived from the remobilization of degraded leaf molecules during monocarpic senescence. The down-regulation of the NAC transcription factor Grain Protein Content (GPC) in transgenic wheat plants delays senescence (>3 weeks) and reduces the concentration of protein, Zn and Fe in the grain (>30%), linking senescence and nutrient remobilization.Based on the early and rapid up-regulation of GPC in wheat flag leaves after anthesis, we hypothesized that this transcription factor is an early regulator of monocarpic senescence. To test this hypothesis, we used high-throughput mRNA-seq technologies to characterize the effect of the GPC down-regulation on the wheat flag-leaf transcriptome 12 days after anthesis. At this early stage of senescence GPC transcript levels are significantly lower in transgenic GPC-RNAi plants than in the wild type, but there are still no visible phenotypic differences between genotypes.
We generated 1.4 million 454 reads from early senescing flag leaves (average ~350 nt) and assembled 1.2 million into 30,497 contigs that were used as a reference to map 145 million Illumina reads from three wild type and four GPC-RNAi plants. Following normalization and statistical testing, we identified a set of 691 genes differentially regulated by GPC (431 ≥ 2-fold change). Transcript level ratios between transgenic and wild type plants showed a high correlation (R = 0.83) between qRT-PCR and Illumina results, providing independent validation of the mRNA-seq approach. A set of differentially expressed genes were analyzed across an early senescence time-course.
Monocarpic senescence is an active process characterized by large-scale changes in gene expression which begins considerably before the appearance of visual symptoms of senescence. The mRNA-seq approach used here was able to detect small differences in transcript levels during the early stages of senescence. This resulted in an extensive list of GPC-regulated genes, which includes transporters, hormone regulated genes, and transcription factors. These GPC-regulated genes, particularly those up-regulated during senescence, provide valuable entry points to dissect the early stages of monocarpic senescence and nutrient remobilization in wheat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an important component of the plant sucrose biosynthesis pathway. In the monocotyledonous Poaceae, five SPS genes have been identified. Here we present a detailed analysis of the wheat SPSII family in wheat. A set of homoeologue-specific primers was developed in order to permit both the detection of sequence variation, and the dissection of the individual contribution of each homoeologue to the global expression of SPSII.
The expression in bread wheat over the course of development of various sucrose biosynthesis genes monitored on an Affymetrix array showed that the SPS genes were regulated over time and space. SPSII homoeologue-specific assays were used to show that the three homoeologues contributed differentially to the global expression of SPSII. Genetic mapping placed the set of homoeoloci on the short arms of the homoeologous group 3 chromosomes. A resequencing of the A and B genome copies allowed the detection of four haplotypes at each locus. The 3B copy includes an unspliced intron. A comparison of the sequences of the wheat SPSII orthologues present in the diploid progenitors einkorn, goatgrass and Triticum speltoides, as well as in the more distantly related species barley, rice, sorghum and purple false brome demonstrated that intronic sequence was less well conserved than exonic. Comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis of SPSII gene showed that false purple brome was more similar to Triticeae than to rice. Wheat - rice synteny was found to be perturbed at the SPS region.
The homoeologue-specific assays will be suitable to derive associations between SPS functionality and key phenotypic traits. The amplicon sequences derived from the homoeologue-specific primers are informative regarding the evolution of SPSII in a polyploid context.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interaction between parental genomes is accompanied by global changes in gene expression which, eventually, contributes to growth vigor and the broader phenotypic diversity of allopolyploid species. In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of allopolyploidization on the regulation of diverged gene networks, we performed a genome-wide analysis of homoeolog-specific gene expression in re-synthesized allohexaploid wheat created by the hybridization of a tetraploid derivative of hexaploid wheat with the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome Ae. tauschii.
Affymetrix wheat genome arrays were used for both the discovery of divergent homoeolog-specific mutations and analysis of homoeolog-specific gene expression in re-synthesized allohexaploid wheat. More than 34,000 detectable parent-specific features (PSF) distributed across the wheat genome were used to assess AB genome (could not differentiate A and B genome contributions) and D genome parental expression in the allopolyploid transcriptome. In re-synthesized polyploid 81% of PSFs detected mid-parent levels of gene expression, and only 19% of PSFs showed the evidence of non-additive expression. Non-additive expression in both AB and D genomes was strongly biased toward up-regulation of parental type of gene expression with only 6% and 11% of genes, respectively, being down-regulated. Of all the non-additive gene expression, 84% can be explained by differences in the parental genotypes used to make the allopolyploid. Homoeolog-specific co-regulation of several functional gene categories was found, particularly genes involved in photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis in wheat.
Here, we have demonstrated that the establishment of interactions between the diverged regulatory networks in allopolyploids is accompanied by massive homoeolog-specific up- and down-regulation of gene expression. This study provides insights into interactions between homoeologous genomes and their role in growth vigor, development, and fertility of allopolyploid species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB) from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat. Results Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed. Conclusions In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large chromosomal regions. The net effect of these factors in T. aestivum is large variation in diversity among genomes and chromosomes, which impacts the development of SNP markers and their practical utility. Accumulation of new mutations in older polyploid species, such as wild emmer, results in increased diversity and its more uniform distribution across the genome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico.
Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA) SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (F(ST)) at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated F(ST) were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM).
Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and among populations. The higher extent of LD in the wheat D-genome versus the A- and B-genomes likely reflects the episodes of recent introgression and population bottleneck accompanying the origin of hexaploid wheat. The assessment of LD and population structure in this assembled panel of diverse lines provides critical information for the development of genetic resources for genome-wide association mapping of agronomically important traits in wheat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB) from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat.
Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed.
In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large chromosomal regions. The net effect of these factors in T. aestivum is large variation in diversity among genomes and chromosomes, which impacts the development of SNP markers and their practical utility. Accumulation of new mutations in older polyploid species, such as wild emmer, results in increased diversity and its more uniform distribution across the genome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-nucleotide polymorphism was used in the construction of an expressed sequence tag map of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. Comparisons of the map with the rice and sorghum genome sequences revealed 50
inversions and translocations; 2, 8, and 40 were assigned respectively to the rice, sorghum, and Ae. tauschii lineages, showing greatly accelerated genome evolution in the large Triticeae genomes. The reduction of the basic chromosome
number from 12 to 7 in the Triticeae has taken place by a process during which an entire chromosome is inserted by its telomeres
into a break in the centromeric region of another chromosome. The original centromere–telomere polarity of the chromosome
arms is maintained in the new chromosome. An intrachromosomal telomere–telomere fusion resulting in a pericentric translocation
of a chromosome segment or an entire arm accompanied or preceded the chromosome insertion in some instances. Insertional dysploidy
has been recorded in three grass subfamilies and appears to be the dominant mechanism of basic chromosome number reduction
in grasses. A total of 64% and 66% of Ae. tauschii genes were syntenic with sorghum and rice genes, respectively. Synteny was reduced in the vicinity of the termini of modern
Ae. tauschii chromosomes but not in the vicinity of the ancient termini embedded in the Ae. tauschii chromosomes, suggesting that the dependence of synteny erosion on gene location along the centromere–telomere axis either
evolved recently in the Triticeae phylogenetic lineage or its evolution was recently accelerated.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2009; 106(37):15780-15785. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are indispensable in such applications as association mapping and construction of high-density genetic maps. These applications usually require genotyping of thousands of SNPs in a large number of individuals. Although a number of SNP genotyping assays are available, most of them are designed for SNP genotyping in diploid individuals. Here, we demonstrate that the Illumina GoldenGate assay could be used for SNP genotyping of homozygous tetraploid and hexaploid wheat lines. Genotyping reactions could be carried out directly on genomic DNA without the necessity of preliminary PCR amplification. A total of 53 tetraploid and 38 hexaploid homozygous wheat lines were genotyped at 96 SNP loci. The genotyping error rate estimated after removal of low-quality data was 0 and 1% for tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, respectively. Developed SNP genotyping assays were shown to be useful for genotyping wheat cultivars. This study demonstrated that the GoldenGate assay is a very efficient tool for high-throughput genotyping of polyploid wheat, opening new possibilities for the analysis of genetic variation in wheat and dissection of genetic basis of complex traits using association mapping approach.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 06/2009; 119(3):507-17. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed 359 detection primers for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously discovered within intron sequences of wheat genes and used them to evaluate SNP polymorphism in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). These SNPs showed an average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.18 among 20 US elite wheat cultivars, representing seven market classes. This value increased to 0.23 when SNPs were pre-selected for polymorphisms among a diverse set of 13 hexaploid wheat accessions (excluding synthetic wheats) used in the wheat SNP discovery project (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/SNP). PIC values for SNP markers in the D genome were approximately half of those for the A and B genomes. D genome SNPs also showed a larger PIC reduction relative to the other genomes (P < 0.05) when US cultivars were compared with the more diverse set of 13 wheat accessions. Within those accessions, D genome SNPs show a higher proportion of alleles with low minor allele frequencies (<0.125) than found in the other two genomes. These data suggest that the reduction of PIC values in the D genome was caused by differential loss of low frequency alleles during the population size bottleneck that accompanied the development of modern commercial cultivars. Additional SNP discovery efforts targeted to the D genome in elite wheat germplasm will likely be required to offset the lower diversity of this genome. With increasing SNP discovery projects and the development of high-throughput SNP assay technologies, it is anticipated that SNP markers will play an increasingly important role in wheat genetics and breeding applications.