Publications (3)1.46 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Studies on salivary flow rates in human beings have mainly been carried out with adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the unstimulated salivary flow rates of children 4 to 7 years old. In addition, the relative contributions of the variables age, gender, race, height, body weight, dentition status, use of prescription medication, and health status (information obtained from parents) to the unstimulated salivary flow rates of children were also studied. Data were obtained from children (n = 447) at 2 sites in the United States (site 1, southeast Michigan; site 2, northern Michigan) and at 5 sites in Brazil (site 3, Porto Alegre; site 4, São Paulo; site 5, Belém; and sites 6 and 7, sites in Rio de Janeiro). In northern Michigan (site 2) the participants were cognitively or developmentally disabled, or both. In Rio de Janeiro (site 7), a group of 8- to 12-year-olds served as a control group. Saliva samples were collected for 3 minutes between 9 AM and noon in the spring or summer, and the saliva rate was determined gravimetrically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, bivariate analysis, and regression analysis. The secretion rates at the 7 sites were (in milliliters per minute) 0.19 +/- 0.15, 0.23 +/- 0.28, 0.34 +/- 0.23, 0.48 +/- 0.37, 0.25 +/- 0.27, 0.37 +/- 0.28, and 0.61 +/- 0.34, respectively. There were significant differences among sites (P <.0001). The older group (site 7) had flow rates that were significantly higher than the flow rates of any other group. In addition, children from Michigan (sites 1 and 2) had significantly lower rates than most groups of children in Brazil. Girls had lower unstimulated salivary flow rates than boys did at all the sites, but the differences were not statistically significant. Race was shown not to affect the flow rates. The use of any prescription medication by children in the previous 3 months was associated with lower salivary flow rates than were found in children not using prescription medication. Children who were in good health and who had no previous medical conditions had higher flow rates--but not significantly so. Higher flow rates occurred in children with mixed dentition than in children with primary dentition, although again the differences were not statistically significant. Regression analysis revealed weight to be of significance in explaining the variability of the unstimulated salivary flow rates at 2 sites, height at 1 site, the use of prescription medication at 2 sites, and age at 1 site. The unstimulated salivary flow rates in children in the northern United States are comparable with those reported for Japanese children, whereas the flow rates of children in Brazil are comparable with those reported for North American and European adults. In addition, none of the demographic variables/parameters tested contributed consistently to the variability of the unstimulated salivary flow rates in children at the 7 sites assessed in this study.Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 05/2001; 91(5):541-5. DOI:10.1067/moe.2001.114004 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chlorhexidine, a cationic anti-microbial agent, prevents gingivitis by inhibiting plaque accumulation. Gingivitis is the most predominant form of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a chlorhexidine varnish on the gingival status of adolescents. The subjects of this study were 10-15 years old adolescents randomly divided into a control (C) and a treatment (T) group, n = 53 and n = 57, respectively. After restoration of all caries lesions, a prophylaxis was given to both C and T groups. A 10 percent chlorhexidine varnish was applied to the entire dentition of T subjects at BL; and one week and three months thereafter. One calibrated examiner determined blindly the Gingival Index (GI) of all subjects. The average percentage of sites per subject with GI scores of 2 or 3 at BL, and after three and six months for the T group were, respectively, 3.68 +/- 7.13, 0.71 +/- 2.43 and 0.16 +/- 0.62. The corresponding values for the C group were 2.11 +/- 3.68, 1.27 +/- 2.94 and 1.59 +/- 5.20. Profile analysis revealed that over a 6-month period subjects of T group had significantly fewer sites with GI scores 2 and 3 than subjects in the C group (p = 0.025). It is concluded that the professional application of a chlorhexidine varnish significantly improved the gingival health of adolescents over a 6-month period.01/2000; 67(6):399-402, 374.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a chlorhexidine varnish-sealant on the mutans streptococci and on caries outcome variables, in 113 female school-children 10 to 15 years-old, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Subjects were randomly allocated to control (C) and treatment (T) groups, n=55 and n=58, respectively. At baseline the number of decayed, restored, and white spot lesions on teeth surfaces was determined by a calibrated examiner, and the salivary levels of the mutans streptococci were assessed with a dip-slide test. Both groups had their existing carious lesions restored and they were given a prophylaxis. Subjects who belonged to the T group had a 10% chlorhexidine varnish-sealant applied to their entire dentition once or twice (with a 1 week interval) if they had = or smaller then 2.5 x 10^5 CFU of mutans streptococci/dip-slide, respectively. The same procedures performed at baseline were performed after 3 months for each group. After 6 months all subjects received caries examination and salivary analysis for the mutans streptococci. Results showed significantly lower levels of the mutans streptococci in the T group when compared to the C group after 6 months (p less then 0.0001). No significant differences were observed between T and C groups from baseline to 6-month examinations in caries scores. Treatment group was the only predictor (p less then 0.0001-final model) of the salivary levels of the mutans streptococci after 6 months. It is concluded that the use of a chlorhexidine varnish-sealant in the T group when compared to the C group had a significant effect in reducing the levels of the mutans streptococci after 6 months which could not be translated into a significant effect on caries outcome variables when T and C groups were compared. Therefore, we suggest that protocols with multiple applications of chlorhexidine varnishes for a finite period of time may be necessary in longitudinal studies of the effects of chlorhexidine varnishes on the mutans streptococci and on caries outcome variables.