E.A. Crecelius

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States

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Publications (28)55.92 Total impact

  • E.A. Crecelius, C.W. Apts, B.K. Lasorsa
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    ABSTRACT: A limited survey conducted in the summer of 1989 indicted that concentrations of seven metals(As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Norton Sound seawater are typical of coastal seawater. Of particular interest was Hg, which was determined to be in the range of 1 to 2 ng/L. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff sampled seawater near Nome in June and September 1989. These seawater samples and sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals with the following objectives: to determine the concentrations of metals in surface and bottom water within 30 miles of Nome, to determine the concentrations of metals up-current and down-current of the BIMA gold dredge while the dredge was operating, to compare the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) total recoverable digestion technique for the analysis of metals in seawater with other analytical-chemical methods, and to determine the concentrations of metals in sediment elutriates. In a related issue, few data were available on the levels of mercury and arsenic in Nome residents through 1988. To fill this data need, samples of hair collected from Nome women of child-bearing age were analyzed to determine the concentrations of mercury and arsenic. 13 refs., 1 fig. 12 tabs.
    03/1990;
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    ABSTRACT: On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.
    01/1990;
  • T.J. Fortman, E.A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    OCEANS '89. Proceedings; 10/1989
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    OCEANS '89. Proceedings; 10/1989
  • E.A. Crecelius, D.L. Woodruff, M.S. Myers
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    OCEANS '89. Proceedings; 10/1989
  • J T Hardy, E A Crecelius, C E Cowan, R S Wentsel
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    ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted to assess the fate and potential toxicity of brass powder deposited on water surfaces. Laboratory microcosms containing lake water were used to quantify the effects of surface dose, pH, alkalinity, microbiota, and sediment binding on the availability and subsequent toxicity of Cu and Zn from brass powder. Eight days after deposition on the water surface, high concentrations of Cu and Zn remained in the aquatic surface microlayer (upper 33 µm). The concentrations of total Cu and Zn in the subsurface bulkwater were reduced by the presence of bottom sediment but were little affected by biota. Toxicity of brass powder toDaphnia magna increased with increasing surface deposition (dose) and decreased with increasing water pH and alkalinity. Little or no toxicity occurred at brass powder surface doses of 50 and 1,000 mg/m2 for low- and high-alkalinity environments, respectively. Geochemical modeling suggested that toxicity resulted from concentrations of both Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in solution.
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 10/1988; 17(5):575-81. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • E.A. Jenne, E.A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: A current approach to evaluating the potential toxicity of metal pollutants (MP) in sediments requires using methods for estimating sorbed metals, amorphic Fe oxide, Mn oxides, and reactive particulate organic carbon (RPOC). Methods for estimating these variables are reevaluated and extraction conditions optimized. The hydroxylamine hydrochloride method, used to estimate the quantities of sorbed metals and amorphic Fe oxide and oxidic Mn adsorbents, was found to yield excellent recovery of MP spikes added at the beginning of the extraction, and adequate precision and selectivity for amorphic over crystalline Fe oxides. Hot KOH was tentatively selected over NH/sub 4/OH for estimating RPOC because of its greater convenience; correlations with laboratory sorption experiments will be required to provide an adequate basis for selection. Determination of both sorbed metals and RPOC are relatively insensitive to solid-to-extractant ratio. Metal pollutants and RPOC extraction are also relatively insensitive to normality of HCl and KOH, respectively. 10 refs., 2 figs.
    09/1988
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    ABSTRACT: From 1983 to 1985, Battelle/Marine Research Laboratory conducted reconnaissance-level field and laboratory studies to better characterize toxic contamination problems occurring in selected urban-industrialized bays (Bellingham Bay, Port Gardner - Everett Harbor, Fourmile Rock - Elliot Bay dump site vicinity, Sinclair Inlet) of Puget Sound. It was envisioned that this goal was best achieved by simultaneously determining levels of contamination in selected baseline or 'reference bays' (Samish Bay, Case Inlet, Dabob Bay, Sequim Bay). Two major tasks composed this effort. The first was conducted in 1983 and consisted of preliminary or screening surveys to collect and analyze sediment samples from 101 stations distributed in the four urban-industrialized bays (Figure 1), and at 80 stations distributed in the four baseline bays (Figure 2). The second task was undertaken in 1984 and involved detailed surveys and analyses of the same bays, but at a limited number of stations (32 in urban embayments, 16 in baseline bays). The stations to be resampled in 1984 were the ''cleanest'' of the clean and the ''dirtiest'' of the dirty as determined by the 1983 sediment chemical analyses, and within restrictions imposed by sediment type.
    02/1988
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    ABSTRACT: Many aquatic contaminants, because of low water solubility (hydrophobicity) or association with floatable particles, concentrate at the sea surface. Thirty-six samples of the sea-surface microlayer (SMIC), the upper 50 μm, were collected from sites in Puget Sound, Washington State. Sites included three urban bays, central Puget Sound, and a rural reference site. Exposure of floating fish eggs to approximately half of these samples resulted in sublethal and lethal toxic effects (Hardy et al., 1987c).Chemical analyses revealed high concentrations of contaminants in many of the samples. Major temporal and spatial differences in sea-surface chemistry occurred, but maximum (for all) and mean (for 1985) concentrations were aromatic hydrocarbons, 8030 (mean 132) μg liter−1: saturate hydrocarbons, 2060 μg liter−1: pesticides, 43·8 (mean 0·46) ng liter−1; PCBs, 3890 (mean 631) ng liter−1; and total metals, 4750 (mean 626) μg liter−1. Stepwise multivariate regression indicated that the percentage of fish eggs developing to normal live larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of a complex mixture of contaminants. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the major types of contaminants did not differ greatly in their statistical contribution to the toxicity, i.e. no single chemical was responsible for the observed toxicity.The chemical composition of the SMIC samples suggested that contamination originated from a variety of sources including atmospheric deposition, terrestrial runoff of fossil fuel combustion products, and sewage disposal.
    Marine Environmental Research 01/1987; · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • J.T. Hardy, E.A. Crecelius, R. Kocan
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    ABSTRACT: The Marine Research Laboratory conducted studies during CY 1985 to evaluate the effects of sea-surface contamination on the reproductive success of a valued marine species. Microlayer and bulk water samples were collected from a rural bay, central Puget Sound, and three urban bays and analyzed for a number of metal and organic contaminants as well as for densities of neuston and plankton organisms. Fertilized neustonic eggs of sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus) were exposed to the same microlayer samples during their first week of embryonic and larval development. Also, we evaluated the effects of microlayer extracts on the growth of trout cell cultures. Compared to rural sites, urban bays generally contained lower densities of neustonic flatfish eggs during the spawning season. Also, in contrast to the rural sites or the one central Puget Sound site, approximately half of the urban bay microlayer samples resulted in significant increases in embryo mortality (up to 100%), kyphosis (bent spine abnormalities) in hatched larvae, increased anaphase aberrations in developing embryos, and decreased trout cell growth. The toxic samples generally contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic and/or chlorinated hydrocarbons and/or potentially toxic metals. In some cases, concentrations of contaminants on the sea surface exceeded water-quality criteria by several orders of magnitude. Several samples of subsurface bulk water collected below highly contaminated surfaces showed no detectable contamination or toxicity.
    03/1986;
  • J.T. Hardy, C.W. Apts, E.A. Crecelius, N.S. Bloom
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    ABSTRACT: The sea-surface microlayer is an important interface between the atmosphere and ocean and a collection point for many anthropogenic materials including potentially toxic metals. We developed a glass plate sampler to collect the upper 30 to 55 micrometers of the sea surface. Samples of the microlayer and subsurface bulk water from an urban and rural bay were analysed for concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Fe. Metal concentrations in both the microlayer and bulk water were generally 2 to 15 times greater in the urban than in the rural bay. Concentrations of metals in the microlayer of both bays averaged 6 to 65 times greater than those in the bulk water. In the urban bay, microlayer concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu from 10 to > 100 μg 1−1 were common. Measured microlayer metals concentrations agree well with those predicted from atmospheric deposition rates using a previously derived empirical model developed from laboratory microcosm studies. Further work will be required to determine whether or not these high microlayer metal concentrations contain significant biologically available fractions which could impact fisheries recruitment of larval icthyoneuston.
    Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 03/1985; · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: Deposition of atmospheric particles provides a major source of metals to the world's oceans. Before entering the water column these metals must pass through the sea-surface microlayer (upper 50 ..mu..m), a boundary with unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. A model, derived from laboratory microcosm studies, is used to predict the behavior of six metals under two conditions of biotic enrichment and wind mixing and three atmospheric deposition rates. Mean residence times of metals in the microlayer are 1.5-15 h. Maximum predicted enrichments (microlayer/water metals concentrations) are Pb > Cu > Zn > Ag > Ni > Mn. These predicted enrichments agree well with mean microlayer metal enrichments measured in the field.
    Limnology and Oceanography 01/1985; 30(1):93-101. · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • C.E. Cowan, E.A. Crecelius, E.A. Jenne
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of variations in pH, salinity, sulfide and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations on the speciation of dissolved Ag were calculated using the MINTEQ geochemical model. Molecular-weight-averaged conditional equilibrium constants for natural Ag-organic complexes were estimated from the equilibrium constants for specific metal-organic complexes and the concentration of the organic compounds, reported to be present in seawater, summed by principal functional group. These calculations show that the major Ag complexes in seawater are AgHS/sup 0/, for S(-II) concentrations above 0.01 ..mu..g L/sup -1/, AgCl/sup 0/, AgCl/sub 2//sup -/, AgCl/sub 3//sup -/ and AgCl/sub 4//sup 0/. If the AgCl/sup 0/ complex is the primary bioavailable or toxic chemical species as has been reported, the toxicity of silver will decrease significantly with increased S(-II) concentration, pH, and with decreased salinity. Organically complexed silver was calculated to represent
    10/1984
  • E.A. Crecelius, N. Bloom
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    ABSTRACT: Trends in contaminant loading to the central basin of Puget Sound have been inferred from the chemical composition of age-dated sediment cores. During the last hundred years there have been dramatic changes in the quantity of specific heavy metals and organic compounds entering Puget Sound. The sedimentary history of several chemicals, including Pb, Hg, Ag, Cu, As and hydrocarbons, shows increased concentrations paralleling the urbanization of the Seattle-Tacoma area. Contaminant concentrations began to increase above background in the late 1800s and reached maximum concentrations usually in sediments deposited in 1945 to 1965. Synthetic organics such as PCB, DDT and CBD first appear in sediments deposited in the 1930s or later and reached a maximum in the 1960s. The presence of the subsurface maximum concentrations in the fine-grain deepwater sediments indicates the pollution control strategies have significantly improved the sediment quality of central Puget Sound.
    09/1984
  • J T Hardy, M F Sullivan, E A Crecelius, C W Apts
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    ABSTRACT: The trophic transfer of cadmium (Cd) was studied in a phytoplankton-oyster-mouse food chain. Phytoplankton, grown in a continuous culture chemostat system containing CdCl2 plus the isotope109Cd, accumulated 70% of the total supplied cadmium. Oysters filtered out 85 to 95% of the phytoplankton. The rate of oyster Cd accumulation at 15 C increased linearly with seawater Cd concentration according to: y=0.066X - 0.15 (n =12, r=0.96); where X=µg Cd/L seawater (between 2 and 22) and y=µg Cd/g dry wt oyster/ day. About 59% of the Cd accumulated by the oysters came from the phytoplankton food source and 41% from the cadmium dissolved in the water. Sixty-one percent of the total supplied cadmium was retained in the whole soft body of the osyters. Mice fed 0.4 µg of oyster-bound Cd per g of diet, retained 0.83% of the dietary cadmium consumed. Mouse kidney retention for organic oyster-bound cadmium was 0.14%. Extrapolation of these results to human risk assessment indicates that moderate consumption of oysters, which are not highly contaminated with cadmium, poses no significant health risk in terms of elevating kidney cadmium levels.
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 08/1984; 13(4):419-25. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • N. S. Bloom, E. A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: A preconcentration technique is described for silver, which allows the precise and accurate determination of silver in sea water at nanogram per liter levels. Silver is co-precipitated with cobalt(II) pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate from 200-ml samples. The precipitate is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid and silver is quantified by Zeeman graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with acid phosphate matrix modification. The detection limit is 0.1 ng l−. The method is simple and rapid, and also allows the simultaneous extraction of lead, copper, cadmium, and nickel.
    Analytica Chimica Acta 01/1984; 156:139-145. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The apparent copper complexing capacity (CC) of Pacific Northwest coastal marine waters ranged between 7.5 and 32.8 ..mu..g/l (anti X = 18.7, S = 5.51, N = 57) at one sampling site. At Jervis Inlet, B.C., Canada, vertical gradients were identified with very low CC at the surface and much higher CC in bottom waters (500 m). Copper complexation as measured by ASV appears to be associated with uv oxidizable material. Unfiltered coastal (44/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/N) seawater from 1 to 600 meter depth was analyzed for total copper concentration. The average concentration over 42 stations was 0.27 ..mu..g/l, S.D. = 0.17 ..mu..g/l and values ranged between 0.01 and 0.9 ..mu..g/l. Analytical procedures and factors affecting interpretation of CC determination are discussed.
    03/1982;
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    ABSTRACT: Studies were performed to determine the effects of dissolved substances present in natural seawater and sediment on the bioavailability of added Cu+2. Whole clams Macoma inquinata and shrimp, Pandalus danae, were exposed to four concentrations of Cu in a flow-through seawater system. Bioaccumulation of Cu was reduced in shrimp, Pandalus danae, clams, M. inquinata, and excised clam gills, Protothaca staminea, exposed to an aged, compared with an unaged, Cu-seawater solution. This is thought to be due to slow complexation of the Cu by dissolved substances present in natural seawater. In a static system, with added sediment, more than 50% of the added Cu+2 became bound to the organic fraction of the sediment and was unavailable to suspension feeding clams, Protothaca staminea. In contrast, deposit feeding clams, Macoma inquinata, placed in the sediment approximately doubled in Cu body burden within two months.Complexed Cu appears to be less bioavailable than ionic Cu and hence measurements of ionic and weakly complexed Cu by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry provide a better prediction of bioavailable Cu than conventional measurements of total Cu-seawater concentrations.
    Marine Environmental Research 01/1982; 6(1):13–26. · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • J T Hardy, E A Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: Present deposition rates of atmospheric particulate matter do not appear great enough to inhibit marine primary productivity except, perhaps, at the sea-surface microlayer. Milligram/liter quantities of air particulate matter added to seawater result in an exponential reduction in photosynthetic /sup 14/C assimilation of natural marine phytoplankton populations. Urban particles are 6 times more toxic than rural particles. The ratios of soluble trace elements from equal amounts of urban (Seattle) to rural (Quillayute) atmospheric particles are as follows: As, 112; Br, 6.4; Cr, 3.4; Cu, 3.7; Ni, 3.0; Pb, 36; V, 2.7; and Zn, 2.2.
    Environmental Science and Technology 09/1981; 15(9):1103-5. · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • J YOUNG, J GURTISEN, C APTS, E CRECELIUS
    Marine Environmental Research - MAR ENVIRON RES. 01/1979; 2(4):265-273.