ABSTRACT: A subgroup of persons with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been proposed to have sociocommunicative problems corresponding to autism spectrum disorders [ASDs, i.e. DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs): autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, PDD not otherwise specified (NOS)]. Here, clinical problems, personality traits, cognitive test results and outcome are compared across 16 subjects (32%) with teenage-onset AN who meet or have met ASD criteria (AN+ASD), 34 ASD-negative AN subjects and matched controls from a longitudinal Swedish study including four waves of independent assessments from the teens to the early thirties.
The fourth wave included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)-I and the SCID-II (cluster C, i.e. 'anxious' PDs) interviews, the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Interview, self-assessments by the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Temperament and Character Inventory, neurocognitive tests by subscales from the Wechsler scales, continuous performance tests, Tower of London, and Happé's cartoons.
The ASD assessments had substantial inter-rater reliability over time (Cohen's κ between 0.70 and 0.80 with previous assessments), even if only six subjects had been assigned a diagnosis of an ASD in all four waves of the study, including retrospective assessments of pre-AN neurodevelopmental problems. The AN+ASD group had the highest prevalence of personality disorders and the lowest Morgan-Russell scores. The non-ASD AN group also differed significantly from controls on personality traits related to poor interpersonal functioning and on neurocognitive tests.
A subgroup of subjects with AN meet criteria for ASDs. They may represent the extreme of neurocognitive and personality problems to be found more generally in AN.
Psychological Medicine 12/2011; 42(9):1957-67. · 6.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Boys with Asperger syndrome (n=20), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (n=20), and reading and writing disorder (n=20) were followed up and retested on several neuropsychological measures 1 to 2 years after initial assessments. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance IQ scores remained stable for all diagnostic groups. Kaufman factors and 'fluid' and 'crystallized' abilities were also stable measures. Subtest stability over time, was slightly more variable. There was a tendency for the group with Asperger syndrome to deteriorate over time with respect to logical reasoning abilities. Measures of executive function/attention ('go-no-go' and 'conflict' tests) showed good test-retest stability in all diagnostic groups. This is the first study of its kind.
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 04/2001; 43(3):165-71. · 2.92 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: : To provide a clinically useful analysis of the extent to which autism and Asperger syndrome coexist with other disorders.
Selective review of the literature detailing data pertaining to symptoms and disorders sometimes encountered in connection with autism or Asperger syndrome.
A large number of medical conditions, psychiatric disorders and behavioural and motor dyscontrol symptoms are associated with autism and Asperger syndrome.
Comorbidity is to be expected in autism spectrum disorders -directly or indirectly. Comorbid conditions may be markers for underlying pathophysiology and suggest a more varied treatment approach. There is a great need for in-depth research into this area, meaning that the exclusion criteria of current diagnostic manuals, i.e. those that rule out a diagnosis of autism in some disorders, and a diagnosis of certain other disorders in autism may have to be revised.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 12/2000; 102(5):321-30. · 4.22 Impact Factor