Wei Jia

Honolulu University, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States

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Publications (213)702.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A number of metabolic conditions, including hypoglycemia, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia, nerve damage and amputation, and vision problems, occur as a result of uncontrolled blood glucose levels over a prolonged period of time. The different components of diabetic complications are not independent, but rather interdependent, of each other, rendering the disease difficult to diagnose and control. The underlying pathogenesis of those components cannot be easily elucidated because of the heterogeneous, polygenic and multi-factorial nature of the disease. Metabonomics offers a snapshot of distinct biochemical variations that may reflect the unique metabolic phenotype under pathophysiological conditions. Here we report a mass spectrometry-based metabonomic study designed to identify the distinct metabolic changes associated with several complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The 292 patients recruited in the study were divided into 5 groups, including T2DM with HBP, T2DM with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), T2DM with HBP and NAFLD, T2DM with HBP and coronary heart disease (CHD) and T2DM with HBP, NAFLD, and CHD. Serum differential metabolites were identified in each group of T2DM complication, mainly involving bile acid, fatty acid, amino acid, lipid, carbohydrate, steroids metabolism and tricarboxylic acids cycle. These broad-spectrum metabolic changes emphasize the complex abnormalities present among these complications with elevated blood glucose levels, providing a novel strategy for stratifying patients with T2DM complications using blood-based metabolite markers.
    Journal of Proteome Research 09/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified that several amino acids, in particular, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), increased significantly in obese compared with lean individuals. Additionally, these metabolites were strongly associated with future diabetes, rendering them prognostic markers suitable for obese populations. Here we report a metabonomic study that reveals new findings on the role of these amino acid markers, particularly BCAAs, in a Chinese cohort including 106 healthy obese and 105 healthy lean participants. We found that the BCAAs were correlated with insulin resistance and differentially expressed in obese men, but not in obese women. The results were verified with two independent groups of participants (Chinese, n=105 and American, n=72), demonstrating that the serum metabolite profiles of the obese population are gender-dependent. The study supports the previous findings of a panel of several key metabolites as prognostic markers of obese population, and highlights the need to take into account gender differences when using these markers for risk assessment.
    Journal of Proteome Research 08/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Yan Ni, Guoxiang Xie, Wei Jia
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world with high prevalence and mortality. It is usually diagnosed at advanced stages due to the limitations of current screening methods used in clinic. There is an urgent need for developing new biomarkers and modalities to detect, diagnose, and monitor the disease. Metabonomics, an approach that involves the comprehensive profiling of the full complement of endogenous metabolites in a biological system, has demonstrated its great potential in early diagnosis and personalized treatment of various cancers including CRC. By applying advanced analytical techniques and bioinformatics tools, the 'metabolome' is mined for biomarkers that are associated with carcinogenesis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of the metabonomics workflow and studies, with a focus on recent advances and findings in the biomarker discovery for early diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.
    Journal of Proteome Research 08/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of hematological malignancies with high heterogeneity. There is an increasing need to improve the risk stratification of AML patients including those with normal cytogenetics, using molecular biomarkers. Here, we report a metabolomics study which identified a distinct glucose metabolism signature with 400 AML patients and 446 healthy controls. The glucose metabolism signature comprises a panel of 6 serum metabolite markers, which demonstrated prognostic value in cytogenetically normal AML patients. We generated a prognosis-risk score (PRS) with 6 metabolite markers for each patient using principal component analysis. A low PRS was able to predict patients with poor survival independently of well-established markers. We further compared the gene-expression patterns of AML blast cells between low and high PRS groups, which correlated well to the metabolic pathways involving the 6 metabolite markers, with enhanced glycolysis and TCA cycle at gene-expression level in low PRS group. In vitro results demonstrated enhanced glycolysis contributed to decreased sensitivity to anti-leukemic agent Ara-C, whereas inhibition of glycolysis suppressed AML cell proliferation and potentiated cytotoxicity of Ara-C. Our study provides strong evidence for the use of serum metabolites and metabolic pathways as novel prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for AML.
    Blood 07/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse frequently causes niacin deficiency in association with the development of alcoholic liver disease. The objective of the present study was to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid (NA) deficiency exaggerates and whether dietary NA supplementation alleviates alcohol-induced fatty liver.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 05/2014; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ⋝20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2% (22.1% in men and 25.8% in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1% (8.6% in men and 7.8% in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 05/2014; 27(5):325-34. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P<0.05). When subjects were divided into 4 groups according to waist circumference, the C-IMT of subjects with waist circumference 90-95 cm was significant higher than that of subjects with waist circumference 85-90 cm and less than 85 cm respectively (P<0.05). Both spearman and partial correlation analysis showed that C-IMT was positively correlated with waist circumference (P<0.01). C-IMT was found significantly elevated with the increase of waist circumference. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that waist circumference was one of the independent risk factors of C-IMT. After an average of 2.23±0.85 years follow up, there was a significant elevation of C-IMT in the group with baseline waist circumference over 90 cm P<0.05), while no significant difference was detected in the group with baseline waist circumference less than 90 cm (P=0.27). Logistic regression showed that baseline waist circumference over 90 cm was associated with a relative risk to C-IMT elevation of 1.132 (95% CI 1.043-1.431, P<0.05). Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 05/2014; 27(5):335-42. · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 05/2014; 27(5):319-324. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated altered metabolites in samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. However, the sample size from many of them is relatively small and the metabolites are relatively limited. Here we applied a comprehensive platforms using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze plasma samples from AD patients, Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients and normal controls. A biomarker panel consisting of 6 plasma metabolites (arachidonic acid, N,N-dimethylglycine, thymine, glutamine, glutamic acid and cytidine) was identified to discriminate AD patients from normal control. Another panel of 5 plasma metabolites (thymine, arachidonic acid, 2-aminoadipic acid, N,N-dimethylglycine and 5,8-tetradecadienoic acid) was able to differentiate aMCI patients from control subjects. Both biomarker panels had good agreements with clinical diagnosis. The 2 panels of metabolite markers were all involved in fatty acid metabolism, one-carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism and nucleic acid metabolism. Additionally, no altered metabolites were found among the patients at different stages, and between those on anticholinesterase medication and those without anticholinesterase medication. These findings provide a comprehensive global plasma metabolite profiling and may contribute to making early diagnosis as well as understanding the pathogenic mechanism of AD and aMCI.
    Journal of Proteome Research 04/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionTo compare carotid and lower limb atherosclerotic lesions, and examine if carotid atherosclerotic lesions are in line with lower limb atherosclerotic lesions, and can reflect generalized atherosclerosis in inpatients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods This was an observational study carried out in 867 Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes, including 573 previously known and 294 newly diagnosed patients. Ultrasonographic assessments of intima-media thickness (IMT), plaques, and stenosis in the carotid and lower limb arteries were evaluated. Atherosclerotic lesions between the carotid and lower limb arteries were compared in both previously known and newly diagnosed diabetes, respectively. ResultsIn both the known (77.3% vs 49.4%, P < 0.001) and the newly diagnosed diabetes (55.4% vs 29.9%, P < 0.001), the prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques was significantly higher in the lower limb arteries than in the carotid arteries. Likewise, the prevalence of stenosis was also significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the lower limb arteries (16.9%) than in the carotid arteries (4.2%) in the established diabetes patients. However, there was no significant difference in the mean IMT between common carotid and common femoral arteries in both the previously known (0.90 ± 0.24 mm vs 0.89 ± 0.20 mm, P = 0.675) and the newly diagnosed diabetes patients (0.86 ± 0.22 mm vs 0.85 ± 0.16 mm, P = 0.436). Conclusions Carotid plaques might underestimate generalized plaques in inpatients with type 2 diabetes, as shown by its significantly lower prevalence compared with that of the lower extremity arteries. A combined carotid and lower limb ultrasound examination can improve the detection of atherosclerotic lesions in inpatients with type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lycium barbarum and Astragalus membranaceus are two traditional medicinal herbs widely used in China for nourishing Yin and reinforcing Qi. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prophylactic and curative effects of crude polysaccharides (QHPS) extracted from a two-herb formula composed of Lycium barbarum and Astragalus membranaceus at a ratio of 2:3 in colitis rats, and to further elucidate the potential mechanism of action in epithelial cell proliferation in vitro. An acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis rat model was applied in the study. Two independent protocols were used to assess the prophylactic and curative effects of QHPS respectively, in which rats were either pre-treated with QHPS (0.18g/kg) for 14 days prior to AA induction, or post-treated with QHPS for 7 days after AA induction. The stool consistency and weight loss were used to evaluate disease activity. The morphological changes in intestinal mucosa at the end of the experiments were observed. The serum levels of endotoxin (EDT), diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate (DLA), important biochemical markers for evaluating intestinal mucosal structure and function, were measured. In the in vitro mechanistic studies, rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) was used to access for epithelium regeneration. The intra-colonic instillation of AA induced ulcerative colitis in rat, as indicated by diarrhea, weight loss, and colonic mucosal damage. Both prophylactic and curative treatments effectively reduced the weight loss and diarrhea and attenuated the colonic mucosal damage associated with inducible colitis. The significant increase in serum levels of DAO, DLA and EDT were induced by AA and inhibited by QHPS treatment. Moreover, QHPS could significantly stimulate IEC-6 proliferation in a dose- dependent manner (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that polysaccharides extracted from this two-herb formula can protect against experimental ulcerative colitis, presumably by promoting the recovery of the intestinal barrier.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 02/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic phenotyping has provided important biomarker findings, which, unfortunately, are rarely replicated across different sample sets due to the variations from different analytical and clinical protocols used in the studies. To date, very few metabolic hallmarks in a given cancer type have been confirmed and validated by use of a metabolomic approach and other clinical modalities. Here, we report a metabolomics study to identify potential metabolite biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) with potential theranostic value. Gas chromatography-Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabolomics was used to analyze 376 surgical specimens, which were collected from 4 independent cohorts of CRC patients at 3 hospitals located in China and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center in the US. Differential metabolites were identified and evaluated as potential prognostic markers. A targeted transcriptomic analysis of 29 CRC and 27 adjacent non-tumor tissues was applied to analyze the gene expression levels for key enzymes associated with these shared metabolites. A panel of 15 significantly altered metabolites was identified, which demonstrates the ability to predict the rate of recurrence and survival for patients after surgery and chemotherapy. The targeted transcriptomic analysis suggests that the differential expression of these metabolites is due to robust metabolic adaptations in cancer cells to increased oxidative stress as well as demand for energy, and macromolecular substrates for cell growth and proliferation. These CRC patients, despite their varied genetic background, mutations, pathological stages, and geographical locations, shared a metabolic signature that is of great prognostic and therapeutic potential.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Asia, young-onset type 2 diabetes (YOD) is characterized by obesity and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 99 Chinese obese subjects with familial YOD diagnosed before 40-year-old and 101 controls, the T allele of rs1408888 in intron 1 of DACH1(Dachshund homolog 1) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.49(95% confidence intervals:1.57-3.96, P = 8.4×10(-5)). Amongst these subjects, we found reduced expression of DACH1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 63 cases compared to 65 controls (P = 0.02). In a random cohort of 1468 cases and 1485 controls, amongst top 19 SNPs from GWAS, rs1408888 was associated with type 2 diabetes with a global P value of 0.0176 and confirmation in a multiethnic Asian case-control cohort (7370/7802) with an OR of 1.07(1.02-1.12, Pmeta = 0.012). In 599 Chinese non-diabetic subjects, rs1408888 was linearly associated with systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance. In a case-control cohort (n = 953/953), rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 1.54(1.07-2.22, P = 0.019) for CVD in type 2 diabetes. In an autopsy series of 173 non-diabetic cases, TT genotype of rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 3.31(1.19-9.19, P = 0.0214) and 3.27(1.25-11.07, P = 0.0184) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary arteriosclerosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rs1408888 lies within regulatory elements of DACH1 implicated in islet development and insulin secretion. The T allele of rs1408888 of DACH1 was associated with YOD, prediabetes and CVD in Chinese.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84770. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis), an important herbal medicine, is mainly distributed in the northeast of China. Its phytochemical compositions, which depend on geographical origin, climatic conditions and cultural practices, may vary largely among Wu Wei Zi from different areas. In this study, we applied a comprehensive metabolite profiling approach using GC-TOF-MS, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) MS and inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) to systematically investigate the metabolite variations of Schisandra chinensis from four different areas including Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin and Shanxi of China. A total of 65 primary metabolites, 35 secondary metabolites and 64 inorganic elements were identified. Several primary metabolites, including shikimic acid and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, were abundant in those located in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning. Besides, bioactive lignans are also highly abundant in those from northeastern China than those from northwestern China. Inorganic elements varied significantly among the different locations. Our results suggested that the metabolite profiling approach using GC-TOF-MS, UPLC-QTOF-MS and ICP-MS is a robust and reliable method that can be effectively used to explore subtle variations among plants from different geographical locations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Separation Science 01/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common types of birth defects with a complex etiology. We have previously profiled serum metabolites of pregnant women in Lvliang prefecture, Shanxi Province of China, which revealed distinct metabolic changes in pregnant women with NTDs outcome. Here we present a metabonomics study of human placentas of 144 pregnant women with normal pregnancy outcome and 115 pregnant women affected with NTDs recruited from four rural counties (Pingding, Xiyang, Taigu, and Zezhou) of Shanxi Province, the area with the highest prevalence worldwide. A panel of 19 metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism was also quantitatively determined. We observed obvious differences in global metabolic profiles and one-carbon metabolism among three subtypes of NTDs, anencephaly (Ane), spina bifida (SB), and Ane complicated with SB (Ane & SB) via mass-spectrometry-based metabonomics approach. Disturbed carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and nucleic acid metabolism were identified. Placental transport of amino acids might be depressed in Ane and Ane & SB group. Deficiency of choline contributes to Ane and Ane & SB pathogenesis via different metabolic pathways. The formation of NTDs seemed to be weakly related to folates. The metabonomic analysis reveals that the physiological and biochemical processes of the three subtypes of NTDs might be different and the subtype condition should be considered for the future investigation of NTDs.
    Journal of Proteome Research 01/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 01/2014; 27(5):319–324. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    Cheng Hu, Jiarui Wu, Wei Jia
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:586272. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. Results After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P<0.05). When subjects were divided into 4 groups according to waist circumference, the C-IMT of subjects with waist circumference 90–95 cm was significant higher than that of subjects with waist circumference 85–90 cm and less than 85 cm respectively (P<0.05). Both spearman and partial correlation analysis showed that C-IMT was positively correlated with waist circumference (P<0.01). C-IMT was found significantly elevated with the increase of waist circumference. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that waist circumference was one of the independent risk factors of C-IMT. After an average of 2.23±0.85 years follow up, there was a significant elevation of C-IMT in the group with baseline waist circumference over 90 cm P<0.05), while no significant difference was detected in the group with baseline waist circumference less than 90 cm (P=0.27). Logistic regression showed that baseline waist circumference over 90 cm was associated with a relative risk to C-IMT elevation of 1.132 (95% CI 1.043–1.431, P<0.05). Conclusion Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 01/2014; 27(5):335–342. · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:138460. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ≥20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. Results The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2% (22.1% in men and 25.8% in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1% (8.6% in men and 7.8% in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Conclusion Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 01/2014; 27(5):325–334. · 1.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
702.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2013–2014
    • Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2010–2013
    • Sichuan University
      • Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Novel Drug Delivery System
      Chengdu, Sichuan Sheng, China
    • Shanghai Cancer Institute
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2003–2013
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2012
    • Appalachian State University
      North Carolina, United States
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      • Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University
      Yung-ning, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, China
  • 2009–2012
    • University of North Carolina at Greensboro
      • • Center for Translational Biomedical Research
      • • Department of Nutrition
      Greensboro, North Carolina, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine and Systems Biology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2011
    • East China Normal University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • North Carolina State University
      • Department of Horticultural Science
      Raleigh, NC, United States
    • David H. Murdock Research Institute
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Tongji Medical University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2004–2009
    • Shanghai University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2008
    • Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Kan-shui, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 2005–2007
    • Tianjin Medical University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Harbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2003–2005
    • Tianjin University
      • School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
      Tianjin, Tianjin Shi, China