[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion to and subsequent extravasation through the endothelial lining of blood vessels is critical for tumor cells to establish metastases. Recent studies have indicated that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) may enhance melanoma adhesion to the endothelium (EC) and subsequent extravasation under dynamic flow conditions. However, little is known about hydrodynamics involved in the tumor microenvironment within the microcirculation. In this study, effects of hydrodynamic flow on regulating melanoma cell adhesion to the EC have been investigated. Results indicate that under flow conditions, interactions between melanoma cells and the EC are distinctly different from PMN-EC interactions. Without expressions of surface integrins or sialylated molecules, most melanoma cells that express a high-level of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) are not able to effectively adhere to the inflamed EC by themselves. Binding of melanoma cells and PMNs through ICAM-1 on melanoma cells and beta(2) integrins on PMNs has been shown to enhance melanoma cell arrest on the EC. Although PMN tethering on the EC is regulated by both the shear rate and shear stress, melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation via tethering PMN on the EC is predominantly regulated by shear rate, which partly is due to the shear-rate-dependent PMN-melanoma aggregation in shear flow. These findings provide a rationale and mechanistic basis for understanding of leukocyte-tumor cell interactions under flow conditions during tumor cell extravasation and metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion, mediated by specific receptor-ligand interactions, plays an important role in biological processes such as tumor metastasis and inflammatory cascade. For example, interactions between beta 2-integrin (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and/or Mac-1) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and ICAM-1 on melanoma cells initiate the bindings of melanoma cells to PMNs within the tumor microenvironment in blood flow, which in turn activate PMN-melanoma cell aggregation in a near-wall region of the vascular endothelium, therefore enhancing subsequent extravasation of melanoma cells in the microcirculations. Kinetics of integrin-ligand bindings in a shear flow is the determinant of such a process, which has not been well understood. In the present study, interactions of PMNs with WM9 melanoma cells were investigated to quantify the kinetics of beta 2-integrin and ICAM-1 bindings using a cone-plate viscometer that generates a linear shear flow combined with a two-color flow cytometry technique. Aggregation fractions exhibited a transition phase where it first increased before 60 s and then decreased with shear durations. Melanoma-PMN aggregation was also found to be inversely correlated with the shear rate. A previously developed probabilistic model was modified to predict the time dependence of aggregation fractions at different shear rates and medium viscosities. Kinetic parameters of beta 2-integrin and ICAM-1 bindings were obtained by individual or global fittings, which were comparable to respectively published values. These findings provide new quantitative understanding of the biophysical basis of leukocyte-tumor cell interactions mediated by specific receptor-ligand interactions under shear flow conditions.