[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In both experimental animals and humans, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a potent hepatic toxin and carcinogen against which a variety of antioxidants and experimental or therapeutic drugs (e.g., oltipraz, related dithiolethiones, and various triterpenoids) protect from both acute toxicity and carcinogenesis. These agents induce several hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GST) as well as aldo-keto reductases (AKR) which are thought to contribute to protection. Studies were undertaken in transgenic rats to examine the role of one inducible enzyme, AKR7A1, for protection against acute and chronic actions of AFB(1) by enhancing detoxication of a reactive metabolite, AFB(1) dialdehyde, by reduction to alcohols. The AFB(1) dialdehyde forms adducts with protein amino groups by a Schiff base mechanism and these adducts have been theorized to be at least one cause of the acute toxicity of AFB(1) and to enhance carcinogenesis. A liver-specific AKR7A1 transgenic rat was constructed in the Sprague-Dawley strain and two lines, AKR7A1(Tg2) and AKR7A1(Tg5), were found to overexpress AKR7A1 by 18- and 8-fold, respectively. Rates of formation of AFB(1) alcohols, both in hepatic cytosols and as urinary excretion products, increased in the transgenic lines with AKR7A1(Tg2) being the highest. Neither line offered protection against acute AFB(1)-induced bile duct proliferation, a functional assessment of acute hepatotoxicity by AFB(1), nor did they protect against the formation of GST-P positive putative preneoplastic foci as a result of chronic exposure to AFB(1). These results imply that the prevention of protein adducts mediated by AKR are not critical to protection against AFB(1) tumorigenicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aflatoxin B 1 aldehyde reductases (AFARs), inducible members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, convert aflatoxin B 1 dialdehyde derived from the exo- and endo-8,9-epoxides into a number of reduced alcohol products that might be less capable of forming covalent adducts with proteins. An isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of the metabolites, C-8 monoalcohol, dialcohol, and C-6a monoalcohol, was developed to ascertain their possible role as urinary biomarkers for application to chemoprevention investigations. This method uses a novel (13)C 17-aflatoxin B 1 dialcohol internal standard, synthesized from (13)C 17-aflatoxin B 1 biologically produced by Aspergillus flavus. Chromatographic standards of the alcohols were generated through sodium borohydride reduction of the aflatoxin B 1 dialdehyde. This method was then explored for sensitivity and specificity in urine samples of aflatoxin B 1-dosed rats that were pretreated with 3 H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione to induce the expression of AKR7A1, a rat isoform of AFAR. One of the two known monoalcohols and the dialcohol metabolite were detected in all urine samples. The concentrations were 203.5 +/- 39.0 ng of monoalcohol C-6a/mg of urinary creatinine and 10.0 +/- 1.0 ng of dialcohol/mg of creatinine (mean +/- standard error). These levels represented about 8.0 and 0.4% of the administered aflatoxin B 1 dose that was found in the urine at 24 h, respectively. Thus, this highly sensitive and specific isotope dilution method is applicable to in vivo quantification of urinary alcohol products produced by AFAR. Heretofore, the metabolic fate of the 8,9-epoxides that are critical for aflatoxin toxicities has been measured by biomarkers of lysine-albumin adducts, hepatic and urinary DNA adducts, and urinary mercapturic acids. This urinary detection of the alcohol products directly contributes to the goal of mass balancing the fate of the bioreactive 8,9-epoxides of AFB 1 in vivo.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 04/2008; 21(3):752-60. DOI:10.1021/tx700397n · 3.53 Impact Factor