[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility loci, including association with non-coding intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10q21.
To fine-map the 10q21 locus, the authors genotyped 86 SNPs in 1632 CD cases and 961 controls and performed single-marker and conditional analyses using logistic regression.
Association with CD risk spanning 11 SNPs (p<0.001) was observed. The most significant association observed was at the non-synonymous SNP, rs7076156 (Ala62Thr), in ZNF365. The alanine allele was over-represented in CD (p=5.23×10⁻⁷; OR=1.39 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.58)); allele frequency of 76% in CD and 69.7% in controls). Conditional analysis on rs7076156 nullified all other significant associations, suggesting that this is the causative variant at this locus. Four isoforms of ZNF365 have previously been identified, and rs7076156 is located in an exon unique to ZNF365 isoform D. The authors demonstrated, using reverse transcription-PCR, expression of ZNF365D in intestinal resections from both CD subjects and controls. Markedly reduced mean expression levels of ZNF365D were identified in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines from CD subjects homozygous for the risk allele (Ala). A whole-genome microarray expression study further suggested that the Ala62Thr change in ZNF365 isoform D is related to differential expression of the genes ARL4A, MKKS, RRAGD, SUMF2, TDR1 and ZNF148 in CD.
Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that the non-synonymous Ala62Thr SNP, rs7076156, underlies the association between 10q21 and CD risk and suggest that this SNP acts by altering expression of genes under the control of ZNF365 isoform D.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) has been found to be associated with small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) in a whole genome association study. Specifically, the rare allele of the R381Q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) conferred protection against CD. It is unknown whether IL-23R is associated with IBD in children. The aim was to examine the association of IL-23R with susceptibility to IBD in pediatric patients.
DNA was collected from 609 subjects (151 CD and 52 ulcerative colitis [UC] trios). Trios were genotyped for the R381Q SNP of the IL-23R gene and SNP8, SNP12, SNP13, of the CARD15 gene using Taqman. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used for association to disease using GENEHUNTER 2.0.
The rare allele of R381Q SNP was present in 2.7% of CD and 2.9% UC probands. The CARD15 frequency was 31.5% (CD) and 18% (UC). The IL-23R allele was negatively associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): the R381Q SNP was undertransmitted in children with IBD (8 transmitted [T] versus 27 untransmitted [UT]; P = 0.001). This association was significant for all CD patients (6 T versus 19 UT; P = 0.009), especially for non-Jewish CD patients (2 T versus 17 UT; P = 0.0006). TDT showed a borderline association for UC (2 T versus 8 UT; P = 0.06). As expected, CARD15 was associated with CD in children by the TDT (58 T versus 22 UT P = 0.00006), but not with UC.
The protective IL-23R R381Q variant was particularly associated with CD in non-Jewish children. Thus, the initial whole genome association study based on ileal CD in adults has been extended to the pediatric population and beyond small bowel CD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a genetically complex disorder with strong familial aggregation. Pathogenesis appears to involve dysregulation of the immune response to endogenous bacteria. Anti-Escherichia coli outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC) expression reflects an exaggerated response to commensal bacteria and occurs with higher frequency in CD. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is familial aggregation and genetic determination of anti-OmpC expression in CD families.
Study groups consisted of 787 CD patients, 389 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, 619 unaffected relatives, and 216 healthy controls. Serum anti-OmpC was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
CD patients had a greater percentage of anti-OmpC than UC patients and healthy controls. Anti-OmpC expression was more frequent in unaffected relatives from CD-only or mixed families, compared with healthy controls (P = .002 and .0001, respectively), and it was more frequent in UC patients from mixed families than those from UC-only families (P = .02). There was a significant familiality in anti-OmpC expression: P = .02 for qualitative concordance and P < .0001 for quantitative intraclass correlation. The heritability estimate for anti-OmpC level was .39 (P < .0001).
Anti-OmpC is a heritable immunophenotype. Increased anti-OmpC expression in the unaffected family members of CD patients suggests that anti-OmpC may be an immunologic risk marker for CD. That UC patients in mixed families had a higher response to OmpC than those in UC-only families indicates pathophysiologic heterogeneity within UC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by diverse clinical phenotypes. Childhood-onset CD has been described as a more aggressive phenotype. Genetic and immune factors may influence disease phenotype and clinical course. We examined the association of immune responses to microbial antigens with disease behavior and prospectively determined the influence of immune reactivity on disease progression in pediatric CD patients.
Sera were collected from 196 pediatric CD cases and tested for immune responses: anti-I2, anti-outer membrane protein C (anti-OmpC), anti-CBir1 flagellin (anti-CBir1), and anti-Saccharomyces-cerevisiae (ASCA) using ELISA. Associations between immune responses and clinical phenotype were evaluated.
Fifty-eight patients (28%) developed internal penetrating and/or stricturing (IP/S) disease after a median follow-up of 18 months. Both anti-OmpC (p < 0.0006) and anti-I2 (p < 0.003) were associated with IP/S disease. The frequency of IP/S disease increased with increasing number of immune responses (p trend = 0.002). The odds of developing IP/S disease were highest in patients positive for all four immune responses (OR (95% CI): 11 (1.5-80.4); p = 0.03). Pediatric CD patients positive for > or =1 immune response progressed to IP/S disease sooner after diagnosis as compared to those negative for all immune responses (p < 0.03).
The presence and magnitude of immune responses to microbial antigens are significantly associated with more aggressive disease phenotypes among children with CD. This is the first study to prospectively demonstrate that the time to develop a disease complication in children is significantly faster in the presence of immune reactivity, thereby predicting disease progression to more aggressive disease phenotypes among pediatric CD patients.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2006; 101(2):360-7. · 7.55 Impact Factor