[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To move closer to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in human longevity, we studied pet dogs to determine whether lifetime duration of ovary exposure was associated with exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, age at death, and cause of death for a cohort of canine 'centenarians'--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than average life expectancy for the breed. Sex and lifetime ovary exposure in the oldest-old Rottweilers (age at death, > or = 13 years) were compared to a cohort of Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death, 8.0-10.8 years). Like women, female dogs were more likely than males to achieve exceptional longevity (OR, 95% CI = 2.0, 1.2-3.3; P = 0.006). However, removal of ovaries during the first 4 years of life erased the female survival advantage. In females, a strong positive association between ovaries and longevity persisted in multivariate analysis that considered other factors, such as height, body weight, and mother with exceptional longevity. A beneficial effect of ovaries on longevity in females could not be attributed to resistance against a particular disease or major cause of death. Our results document in dogs a female sex advantage for achieving exceptional longevity and show that lifetime ovary exposure, a factor not previously evaluated in women, is associated with exceptional longevity. This work introduces a conceptual framework for designing additional studies in pet dogs to define the ovary-sensitive biological processes that promote healthy human longevity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To move closer to the goal of individualized risk prediction for prostate cancer, we used an in vivo canine model to evaluate whether the susceptibility of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage could identify those individuals with the highest prostatic DNA damage. This hypothesis was tested in a population of 69 elderly male beagle dogs after they had completed a 7-month randomized feeding trial to achieve the broad range of dietary selenium status observed in U.S. men. The alkaline Comet assay was used to directly compare the extent of DNA damage in PBLs with prostatic DNA damage in each dog. Using stepwise logistic regression, the sensitivity of PBLs to oxidative stress challenge with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) predicted dogs in the highest tertile of prostatic DNA damage. Dogs with PBLs highly sensitive to H(2)O(2) were 7.6 times [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.5-38.3] more likely to have high prostatic DNA damage than those in the H(2)O(2)-resistant group. This risk stratification was observed in multivariate analysis that considered other factors that might influence DNA damage, such as age, toenail selenium concentration, and serum testosterone concentration. Our data show that the sensitivity of PBLs to oxidative stress challenge, but not endogenous DNA damage in PBLs, provides a noninvasive surrogate marker for prostatic DNA damage. These findings lend support to the concept that oxidative stress contributes to genotoxic damage, and that oxidative stress challenge may stratify men for prostate cancer risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin administered with piroxicam, the antitumor activity and toxicity of cisplatin combined with piroxicam in dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the effects of piroxicam on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in dogs with tumors.
Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial.
Dogs were treated with a combination of cisplatin (escalating dose with 6 hours of diuresis with saline [0.9% NaCI] solution) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg 10.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). The initial cisplatin dose (50 mg/m2) was increased by 5 mg/m2 until the MTD was reached. Tumor stage and size were determined at 6-week intervals during treatment. The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin were determined in dogs receiving a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam during the clinical trial and dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone.
11 dogs with OMM and 9 dogs with SCC were included in the clinical trial. The MTD of cisplatin when administered in combination with piroxicam was 50 mg/m2. Tumor remission occurred in 5 of 9 dogs with SCC and 2 of 11 dogs with OMM. The most common abnormality observed was renal toxicosis. Clearance of cisplatin in dogs that were treated with cisplatin alone was not significantly different from that in dogs treated with a combination of cisplatin and piroxicam.
Cisplatin administered in combination with piroxicam had antitumor activity against OMM and SCC. The level of toxicity was acceptable, although renal function must be monitored carefully.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 03/2004; 224(3):388-94. DOI:10.2460/javma.2004.224.388 · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize extreme aged pet dogs as a first step in developing an animal model of exceptional longevity, we constructed lifetime medical histories for 345 Rottweiler dogs using information collected from owners and veterinarians. Extreme aged dogs (alive at the 95th percentile age at death for the study population, > or =13.3 years) were compared with a usual longevity group (9-10 years). Exceptional longevity in Rottweiler dogs was accompanied by a significant delay in the onset of major life-threatening diseases; 76% of extreme aged dogs remained free of all major diseases during the first 9 years of life. Only 19% of extreme aged dogs died of cancer versus 82% of dogs with usual longevity (p <.0001). The reduction in cancer mortality in oldest-old pet dogs mimics that seen in human centenarians and provides strong rationale for using this animal model to study comparative mechanisms of cancer resistance in the extreme aged.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 12/2003; 58(12):B1078-84. DOI:10.1093/gerona/58.12.B1078 · 5.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trace mineral selenium inhibits cancer development in a variety of experimental animal models. We used an in vivo canine model to evaluate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on DNA damage in prostate tissue and on apoptosis in prostate epithelial cells. Sexually intact elderly male beagle dogs were randomly assigned to receive an unsupplemented diet (control group) or diets that were supplemented with selenium (treatment group), either as selenomethionine or as high-selenium yeast at 3 micro g/kg or 6 micro g/kg body weight per day for 7 months. The extent of DNA damage in prostate cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, was lower among the selenium-supplemented dogs than among the control dogs (prostate P<.001; peripheral blood lymphocytes P =.003; analysis of variance) but was not associated with the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in plasma. The median number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-positive (i.e., apoptotic) prostate epithelial cells was 3.7 (interquartile range = 1.1-7.6) for the selenium-supplemented dogs and 1.7 (interquartile range = 0.2-2.8) for the control dogs ( P =.04, Mann-Whitney U test). These data suggest that dietary selenium supplementation decreases DNA damage and increases epithelial cell apoptosis within the aging canine prostate.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 02/2003; 95(3):237-41. DOI:10.1093/jnci/95.3.237 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the antitumor activity and toxicity of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (piroxicam) combined with cisplatin chemotherapy in dogs with naturally-occurring, invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; and (b) to determine the effects of this treatment on prostaglandin E(2) concentration, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Pet dogs with naturally-occurring invasive TCC underwent complete tumor staging before and after 10 weeks of piroxicam/cisplatin treatment. Prostaglandin E(2) concentrations were determined by immunoassay in snap-frozen tumor tissues. Apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay), proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and microvessel density were determined in formalin-fixed tissues. Urine basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial cell growth factor concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Partial remission (> or =50% reduction in tumor volume) was noted in 6 of 12 dogs treated with piroxicam/cisplatin. Renal toxicity was dose-limiting. Apoptotic index doubled with treatment in 11 of 12 dogs but was not associated with tumor response. Proliferative index decreased in five dogs, and tumor decreased in size in three of the five dogs. Change in urine basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial cell growth factor was associated with tumor response. microvessel density was not associated with tumor response. In conclusion, piroxicam/cisplatin had antitumor activity against canine TCC, a disease that closely mimics human invasive urinary bladder cancer. Strategies to prevent renal toxicity of this protocol are needed. Induction of tumor apoptosis and reduction in angiogenic factor concentrations were observed, but additional studies are needed to further define the mechanisms of the antitumor activity of piroxicam/cisplatin.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 02/2003; 2(2):183-8. · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although experimental and clinical evidence suggest that endogenous sex hormones influence bone sarcoma genesis, the hypothesis has not been adequately tested in an appropriate animal model. We conducted a historical cohort study of Rottweiler dogs because they frequently undergo elective gonadectomy and spontaneously develop appendicular bone sarcomas, which mimic the biological behavior of the osteosarcomas that affect children and adolescents. Data were collected by questionnaire from owners of 683 Rottweiler dogs living in North America. To determine whether there was an association between endogenous sex hormones and risk of bone sarcoma, relative risk (RR) of incidence rates and hazard ratios for bone sarcoma were calculated for dogs subdivided on the basis of lifetime gonadal hormone exposure. Bone sarcoma was diagnosed in 12.6% of dogs in this cohort during 71,004 dog-months follow-up. Risk for bone sarcoma was significantly influenced by age at gonadectomy. Male and female dogs that underwent gonadectomy before 1 year of age had an approximate one in four lifetime risk for bone sarcoma and were significantly more likely to develop bone sarcoma than dogs that were sexually intact [RR +/-95% CI = 3.8 (1.5-9.2) for males; RR +/-95% CI = 3.1 (1.1-8.3) for females]. Chi(2) test for trend showed a highly significant inverse dose-response relationship between duration of lifetime gonadal exposure and incidence rate of bone sarcoma (P = 0.008 for males, P = 0.006 for females). This association was independent of adult height or body weight. We conclude that the subset of Rottweiler dogs that undergo early gonadectomy represent a unique, highly accessible target population to further study the gene:environment interactions that determine bone sarcoma risk and to test whether interventions can inhibit the spontaneous development of bone sarcoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the PGE2 concentration in naturally-occurring cancer in pet dogs and in canine cancer cell lines in order to identify specific types of canine cancer with high PGE2 production which could serve as preclinical models to evaluate anticancer strategies targeting PGE2. PGE2 concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay in canine melanoma, soft tissue sarcoma, transitional cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, and prostatic carcinoma cell lines; in 80 canine tumor tissue samples including oral melanoma (MEL), oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC), lymphoma (LSA), mammary carcinoma (MCA), osteosarcoma (OSA), prostatic carcinoma (PCA); and in corresponding normal organ tissues. High concentrations of PGE(2)(range 400-3300 pg/10(4)cells) were present in cell culture medium from the transitional cell carcinoma, prostatic carcinoma, and osteosarcoma cell lines. PGE2 concentrations in tumor tissues were elevated (tumor PGE2 concentration>mean+2X sd PGE(2)concentration of normal organ tissue) in 21/22 TCC, 5/6 PCA, 7/10 SCC, 5/10 MEL, 3/8 MCA, 4/15 OSA, and 0/9 LSA. Results of this study will help guide future investigations of anticancer therapies that target cyclooxygenase and PGE2.