[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Many phase II trials investigated the combination of Gemcitabine (G) and Vinorelbine (V) in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with variable outcomes. This study was conducted to explore whether this combination was effective and tolerable in MBC patients who were heavily pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes. Methods: A phase I study was conducted first to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the G and V combination in MBC patients. Then, a phase II study evaluated the response rates, the median time to progression (TTP), the overall survival (OS) as well as the toxicities resulting from this combination at the MTD. Results: Nine patients were enrolled in the phase I study. The MTD was identified as 700mg/m(2) of G on days 1 and 8 in combination with 15 mg/m(2) of V on days 2 and 9, every 21 days. Twenty-one of 25 patients involved in the phase II study were evaluable for response. No complete or partial responses were achieved; 6 patients (24.0%) had stable disease and 15 (60.0%) progressed. The median TTP was 2 months and the median OS 10 months. Grade 3/4 Neutropenia was the major hematologic toxicity, occurring in 52% of the cycles. The most common non-hematologic grade 3/4 toxicities were fatigue (18%), myalgias (17%) and arthralgias (13%). Conclusion: In heavily pretreated patients with MBC, the combination of G and V at the doses stated above was ineffective as it did not induce partial or complete responses. Other chemotherapy agents or combinations should be evaluated in future studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate of patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus dose-intense FAC plus G-CSF in the neoadjuvant setting and to compare the delivered dose intensity, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) times, and toxicity between treatment arms in patients with breast cancer.
Patients were randomized to receive preoperative FAC (5-FU, 500 mg/m(2); doxorubicin, 50 mg/m(2); cyclophosphamide, 500 mg/m(2)) every 21 days for four cycles or dose-intense FAC (5-FU, 600 mg/m(2); doxorubicin, 60 mg/m(2); cyclophosphamide, 1,000 mg/m(2)) plus G-CSF every 18 days for four cycles.
Two hundred two patients were randomly assigned. The median follow-up was 7.5 years. Patients randomized to FAC plus G-CSF had a higher pCR rate as well as clinical complete response rate; however, these differences were not statistically different from those with the FAC arm. Patients in the FAC + G-CSF arm had a higher delivered dose intensity of doxorubicin in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings than those in the standard FAC arm. DFS and OS times were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the OS and DFS rates were significantly higher for patients who achieved a pCR than for those who did not. Thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, and infection rates were higher in the FAC + G-CSF arm.
A higher delivered dose intensity of doxorubicin with the FAC + G-CSF regimen did not result in a statistically significant higher pCR rate. However, patients who achieved a pCR experienced longer DFS and OS times.
The Oncologist 01/2011; 16(11):1527-34. · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to quantify the extent of downstaging after preoperative chemotherapy for stage III breast cancer, to assess the feasibility of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) after preoperative chemotherapy, to determine the effectiveness of this multimodal treatment as measured by disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), and to evaluate toxicities.
Patients were treated with 4 preoperative courses of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC). They were then evaluated for response to go to mastectomy or BCT. After local therapy, patients with an excellent response were treated with 4 additional cycles of FAC, whereas patients with a moderate response received 4 cycles of MV (methotrexate and vinblastine). A total of 203 patients were registered; 194 patients (96%) underwent surgery after chemotherapy.
The 5-year OS and progression-free survival rates were 89.8% and 81.6%, respectively, for patients with an excellent response to therapy compared with 67.2% and 63.5%, respectively, for patients with a moderate response and 55.3% and 48.8%, respectively, for patients considered nonresponders (P=.0005 for OS; P<.0001 for DFS). Cytopenia, nausea/vomiting, and stomatitis were the most common toxicities. Preoperative chemotherapy with FAC downstaged 88.6% of patients, and BCT was possible in >25%.
Response to preoperative chemotherapy was a prognostic factor in improved long-term survival.
Clinical Breast Cancer 12/2008; 8(6):516-21. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This phase II trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of 10-Ethyl-10-Deaza-Aminopterin (10-EDAM), a folate antagonist, in metastatic breast cancer patients who had received no more than one prior chemotherapy regimen.
Fifty-five patients were treated on an initial weekly dose 80 mg/m(2) of 10-EDAM. Patients who had received a prior chemotherapy regimen in the adjuvant setting (group 1) were considered separately from patients who had received a prior chemotherapy regimen in the metastatic setting (group 2).
The response rate for both groups combined was 18%, and median time to progression was 3 months. Median overall survival was 12 months. Treatment was associated with common chemotherapy-related toxicities, such as 25% grade three or four neutropenia and 20% grade three or four stomatitis.
In patients with metastatic breast cancer who had received one prior chemotherapy regimen, 10-EDAM was well tolerated. In general, while definite antitumor activity was documented, time to progression was brief.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 07/2007; 60(1):61-7. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Orathecin, an oral camptothecin analog that has exhibited antitumor activity in breast cancer patients during preclinical studies.
Sixteen patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline and taxane were utilized in the study. Orathecin was administered orally at 1.5 mg/m2 /day for the first five consecutive days of the cycle followed by 2 days of rest on a 7-day schedule. The end points of the study were efficacy and toxicity.
The median age of the patients was 51 years (range, 35-73). Eight patients (50%) had multiple disease sites, and nine patients (56%) received more than three chemotherapy regimens. All patients were evaluated for toxicity, three patients were removed from the study for toxicity or disease progression prior to 8 weeks and were thus not evaluated for efficacy. The median follow-up was 110 days (range, 15-554). There were no responses to treatment. Five of the 13 evaluable patients (38%) had stable disease, eight (61%) had progressive disease. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity. The median time to progression (TTP) for evaluable patients was 109 days (range, 56-374 days) (lower 95% C.I., 57 days). The median survival time was 272 days (lower 95% C.I., 209 days).
Orathecin at the dose and regimen used in this study resulted in no objective tumor responses for this heavily pretreated population. Accurate risk stratification strategies can improve patients' selection and contribute to determine the appropriate benefit of therapies in MBC.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2006; 57(4):540-4. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of inflammatory breast cancer includes preoperative anthracycline-based chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. In the past few years, taxanes, mainly paclitaxel, have been frequently used for preoperative chemotherapy, usually in sequence with anthracyclines. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to determine how adding paclitaxel to anthracycline-based regimens affects prognosis. A total of 240 patients treated in 6 consecutive trials between 1973 and 2000 were included in the analysis. Group 1 (N = 178) consisted of patients treated in the first 4 trials (1973-1993) with FAC (5-fluorouracil/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) based regimens. Group 2 (N = 62) consisted of patients treated in the last 2 trials (1994-2000) with FAC followed by paclitaxel given every 3 weeks or given in a high-dose weekly schedule. The 2 groups differed with respect to median follow-up durations, which were 148 months (range, 85-283 months) in group 1 and 45 months (range, 21-99 months) in group 2. Estrogen receptor (ER) status was negative in 58 cases (33%) in group 1 and 40 cases (65%) in group 2. There was no difference in median age between the groups. The objective response rates (complete and partial) were similar (group 1, 74%; group 2, 82%). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were better in the patients treated with paclitaxel, and these differences reached statistical significance in the patients with ER-negative disease (median OS: group 1, 32 months; group 2, 54 months; P = 0.03; median PFS: group 1, 18 months; group 2, 27 months; P = 0.04). It may be concluded that the addition of paclitaxel to anthracycline-based therapy resulted in a statistically significant improvement in outcome in patients with ER-negative inflammatory breast cancer.
Clinical Breast Cancer 03/2004; 4(6):415-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Phase II study was designed to determine the efficacy and toxicity of combination doxorubicin and paclitaxel as front-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
Eligible patients had no prior anthracycline or taxane therapy and normal cardiac function. They were treated with bolus doxorubicin 60 mg/m2, followed by paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, as either 1- or 3-h infusions for six to seven cycles. Single-agent paclitaxel was continued thereafter. Serial multiple gated acquisition scans were performed, and endomyocardial biopsies were performed for consenting patients.
Eighty-two patients were enrolled with a median age of 53 years (range, 32-78 years). Of 79 evaluable patients, 58.2% had an objective response (3.8% complete response + 54.4% partial response), 34.2% had stable disease, and 7.6% had progressive disease. With median follow-up of 37.5 months, median time to progression was 7 months; median survival was 31 months. Multiple gated acquisition scans were performed in 82 of 82 patients at baseline, 75 of 82 patients at a total doxorubicin dose of 60-180 mg/m2, 62 of 68 patients at 200-300 mg/m2, 18 of 52 patients at 310-360 mg/m2, and 4 of 8 patients at 420 mg/m2. Median ejection fractions were 62.5, 60, 57.5, 52.5, and 32%, respectively. Fifteen of 82 (18.3%) patients had a decrease in ejection fraction > or = 15% to an absolute ejection fraction < or = 50%. Eight of these 15 patients (53%) developed clinical congestive heart failure: 4 of 8 (50%) who received a total doxorubicin dose of 420 mg/m2 versus 4 of 74 (5.4%) who received a dose < or = 360 mg/m2 (P = 0.002).
When the doxorubicin dose exceeds 360 mg/m2, the combination of bolus doxorubicin and paclitaxel presents unacceptable cardiac risk.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2002; 8(11):3360-8. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define clinical and pathologic predictors of local-regional recurrence (LRR) for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy without radiation.
We analyzed the outcome of the 150 breast cancer cases treated on prospective institutional trials with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy without postmastectomy radiation. Clinical stage at diagnosis was I in 1%, II in 43%, IIIA in 23%, IIIB in 25%, and IV in 7%. No patient had inflammatory breast cancer.
The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 4.1 years. The 5- and 10-year actuarial rates of LRR were both 27%. Pretreatment factors that positively correlated with LRR were increasing T stage (P <.0001) and increasing combined clinical stage (P <.0001). Pathologic and treatment factors that positively correlated with LRR were size of the residual primary tumor (P =.0048), increasing number of involved lymph nodes (P <.0001), and no use of tamoxifen (P =.0013). The LRR rate for the 18 patients with a pathologic complete response of both the primary tumor and lymph nodes (pCR) was 19% (95% confidence interval, 6% to 48%). In a forward stepwise Cox logistic regression analysis, clinical stage IIIB or greater (hazard ratio of 4.5, P <.001), pathologic involvement of four or more lymph nodes (hazard ratio of 2.7, P =.008), and no use of tamoxifen (hazard ratio of 3.9, P =.027) independently predicted for LRR.
Advanced disease at presentation and positive lymph nodes after chemotherapy predict for clinically significant rates of LRR. Achievement of pCR does not preclude the need for postmastectomy radiation if warranted by the pretreatment stage of the disease.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2002; 20(1):17-23. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To review the 20 years of experience at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with a combined-modality approach against inflammatory
breast carcinoma. Patients and methods: A total of 178 patients with inflammatory breast carcinoma were treated in the past 20 years at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
by a combined-modality approach under four different protocols. Each protocol included induction chemotherapy, then local
therapy (radiotherapy or mastectomy), then adjuvant chemotherapy, and, if mastectomy was performed, adjuvant radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy consisted of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) with or without vincristine and prednisone
(VP). In protocol D, patients received an alternate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen, methotrexate and vinblastine (MV), if they
did not have a complete response (CR) to induction chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up of live patients in group A was 215 months, in group B 186 months, in group C 116 months, and in group
D 45 months. An estimated 28% of patients were currently free of disease beyond 15 years. At the time of analysis, 50 patients
were alive without any evidence of disease. A further 12 patients died of intercurrent illness, and 15 patients were followed
beyond 10 years without recurrence of disease. Among initial recurrence, 20% of patients had local failure, 39% systemic failure,
and 9% CNS recurrence. Initial response to induction chemotherapy was an important prognostic factor. Disease-free survival
(DFS) at 15 years was 44% in patients who had a CR to induction chemotherapy, 31% in those who had a partial response (PR),
and 7% in those who had less than a PR. There was no improvement in overall survival (OS) or DFS among patients who underwent
alternate chemotherapy (MV) compared with those who did not. Using surgery and radiotherapy as opposed to radiotherapy alone
as local therapy did not have an impact on the DFS or OS rate. Conclusion: These long-term follow-up data show that with a combined-modality approach a significant fraction of patients (28%) remained
free of disease beyond 15 years. In contrast, single-modality treatments yielded a DFS of less than 5%. Thus, using combined-modality
treatment (chemotherapy, then mastectomy, then chemotherapy and radiotherapy) is recommended as a standard of care for inflammatory
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/1997; 40(4):321-329. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values in 529 patients treated in two consecutive adjuvant chemotherapy protocols were analyzed to determine if CEA values correlated with disease-free status or prognostic utility. CEA values were evaluated preoperatively, before chemotherapy, at the conclusion of chemotherapy, and during postchemotherapy followup. The sensitivity of CEA for predicting disease recurrence was low; however, any abnormal CEA at the conclusion of chemotherapy and during followup significantly correlated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. A CEA value greater than or equal to 20 ng/ml at the end of chemotherapy or during followup was highly specific and a strongly positive predictor for the presence of metastases. Abnormal CEA values before chemotherapy that became normal at the conclusion of chemotherapy were associated with a significantly reduced recurrence rate. An abnormal CEA value obtained before or after adjuvant chemotherapy is clinically useful and can provide prognostic information.
Cancer 04/1989; 63(5):828-35. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the role of gallium nitrate infusion in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Gallium nitrate was administered at 300 mg/m2/day for 7 days every 3 weeks by continuous infusion concomitantly with oral calcium supplement of 500 mg twice daily and oral hydration. Fifteen patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer received such treatment for a total of 30 courses. Median age was 51, and median performance status (Zubrod scale) was 1. These patients had minimal prior chemotherapy (median 1 regimen). All patients were evaluable for toxicity and 14 for response. Nine patients had one to two metastatic sites, five patients had three to four sites. No major objective response was seen, but one patient had a minor response (10 weeks), and another showed no change in disease (16 weeks). Diverse low-grade toxicities were observed, including nausea and vomiting in 11 patients, anorexia in 11, diarrhea in eight, stomatitis in five, dysgeusia in six, musculoskeletal pain in five, skin rash in seven, partially reversible tinnitis and/or mild hearing loss in four and sensory neuropathy in two. A consistent drop in hemoglobin (median of 3.2 g/dL per patient) necessitated blood transfusion in seven patients. There was no granulocytopenia or thrombocytopenia; however, significant lymphopenia was noted. Reversible, moderate nephrotoxicity occurred in two patients. The hypocalcemic effect was consistent, with a median drop in serum calcium of 1.25 mg/dL per course. There was no hepatic toxicity. While no single toxicity was severe, overall toxicity adversely influenced treatment tolerance. Gallium nitrate by continuous infusion, as given in this study, has no activity in metastatic breast cancer.
Investigational New Drugs 01/1989; 7(2):225-229. · 3.50 Impact Factor