David A Keays

Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (38)322.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins are ubiquitously expressed in the human body and are important for various functions at the cell surface. Mutations in many GPI biosynthesis genes have been described to date in patients with multi-system disease and together these constitute a subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation. We used whole exome sequencing in two families to investigate the genetic basis of disease and used RNA and cellular studies to investigate the functional consequences of sequence variants in the PIGY gene. Two families with different phenotypes had homozygous recessive sequence variants in the GPI biosynthesis gene PIGY. Two sisters with c.137T>C (p.Leu46Pro) PIGY variants had multi-system disease including dysmorphism, seizures, severe developmental delay, cataracts and early death. There were significantly reduced levels of GPI-anchored proteins (CD55 and CD59) on the surface of patient-derived skin fibroblasts (∼20-50% compared to controls). In a second, consanguineous family, two siblings had moderate development delay and microcephaly. A homozygous PIGY promoter variant (c.-540G>A) was detected within a 7.7 Mb region of autozygosity. This variant was predicted to disrupt a SP1 consensus binding site and was shown to be associated with reduced gene expression. Mutations in PIGY can occur in coding and non-coding regions of the gene and cause variable phenotypes. This paper contributes to understanding of the range of disease phenotypes and disease genes associated with deficiencies of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway and also serves to highlight the potential importance of analysing variants detected in 5'-UTR regions despite their typically low coverage in exome data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2015; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddv331 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the mammalian brain requires the generation, migration and differentiation of neurons, cellular processes that are dependent on a dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton. Mutations in tubulin genes, which encode for the structural subunits of microtubules, cause detrimental neurological disorders known as the tubulinopathies. The disease spectra associated with different tubulin genes are overlapping but distinct, an observation which is believed to reflect functional specification of this multi-gene family. Perturbation of the β-tubulin TUBB2B is known to cause polymicrogyria, pachygyria, microcephaly, and axon guidance defects. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of its murine homolog Tubb2b. The generation and characterization of BAC-transgenic eGFP reporter mouse lines has revealed that it is highly expressed in progenitors and post-mitotic neurons during cortical development. This contrasts with the 8 week old cortex where Tubb2b expression is restricted to macroglia, and is almost completely absent in mature neurons. This developmental transition in neurons is mirrored in the adult hippocampus and the cerebellum, but is not a universal feature of Tubb2b as its expression persists in a population of post-mitotic neurons in the 8 week old retina. We propose that the dynamic spatial and temporal expression of Tubb2b reflects specific functional requirements of the microtubule cytoskeleton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 06/2015; 523(15). DOI:10.1002/cne.23836 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular basis of the magnetic sense remains an unsolved scientific mystery. One theory that aims to explain how animals detect the magnetic field is the magnetite hypothesis. It argues that intracellular crystals of the iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4) are coupled to mechanosensitive channels that elicit neuronal activity in specialized sensory cells. Attempts to find these primary sensors have largely relied on the Prussian Blue stain that labels cells rich in ferric iron. This method has proved problematic as it has led investigators to conflate iron-rich macrophages with magnetoreceptors. An alternative approach developed by Eder et al. [Eder SH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(30):12022-12027] is to identify candidate magnetoreceptive cells based on their magnetic moment. Here, we explore the utility of this method by undertaking a screen for magnetic cells in the pigeon. We report the identification of a small number of cells (1 in 476,000) with large magnetic moments (8-106 fAm(2)) from various tissues. The development of single-cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) permitted subcellular analysis of magnetic cells. This revealed the presence of extracellular structures composed of iron, titanium, and chromium accounting for the magnetic properties of these cells. Application of single-cell CLEM to magnetic cells from the trout failed to identify any intracellular structures consistent with biogenically derived magnetite. Our work illustrates the need for new methods to test the magnetite hypothesis of magnetosensation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2014; 112(1). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1407915112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The microtubule cytoskeleton is critical for the generation and maturation of neurons in the developing mammalian nervous system. We have previously shown that mutations in the β-tubulin gene TUBB5 cause microcephaly with structural brain abnormalities in humans. While it is known that TUBB5 is necessary for the proper generation and migration of neurons, little is understood of the role it plays in neuronal differentiation and connectivity. Here, we report that perturbations to TUBB5 disrupt the morphology of cortical neurons, their neuronal complexity, axonal outgrowth, as well as the density and shape of dendritic spines in the postnatal murine cortex. The features we describe are consistent with defects in synaptic signaling. Cellular-based assays have revealed that TUBB5 substitutions have the capacity to alter the dynamic properties and polymerization rates of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Together, our studies show that TUBB5 is essential for neuronal differentiation and dendritic spine formation in vivo, providing insight into the underlying cellular pathology associated with TUBB5 disease states.
    Human Molecular Genetics 05/2014; 23(19). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu238 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological processes, and mutations affecting proteins involved in the synthesis of the GPI anchor are reported to cause a wide spectrum of intellectual disabilities (IDs) with characteristic additional phenotypic features. Here, we describe a total of five individuals (from three unrelated families) in whom we identified mutations in PGAP3, encoding a protein that is involved in GPI-anchor maturation. Three siblings in a consanguineous Pakistani family presented with profound developmental delay, severe ID, no speech, psychomotor delay, and postnatal microcephaly. A combination of autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a 13.8 Mb region harboring a homozygous c.275G>A (p.Gly92Asp) variant in PGAP3 region 17q11.2-q21.32. Subsequent testing showed elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a GPI-anchored enzyme, in all three affected children. In two unrelated individuals in a cohort with developmental delay, ID, and elevated ALP, we identified compound-heterozygous variants c.439dupC (p.Leu147Profs(∗)16) and c.914A>G (p.Asp305Gly) and homozygous variant c.314C>G (p.Pro105Arg). The 1 bp duplication causes a frameshift and nonsense-mediated decay. Further evidence supporting pathogenicity of the missense mutations c.275G>A, c.314C>G, and c.914A>G was provided by the absence of the variants from ethnically matched controls, phylogenetic conservation, and functional studies on Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Taken together with recent data on PGAP2, these results confirm the importance of the later GPI-anchor remodelling steps for normal neuronal development. Impairment of PGAP3 causes a subtype of hyperphosphatasia with ID, a congenital disorder of glycosylation that is also referred to as Mabry syndrome.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2014; 94(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.12.012 · 10.99 Impact Factor
  • Martin Breuss · David A Keays
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the mammalian cortex requires the generation, migration and differentiation of neurons. Each of these cellular events requires a dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton. Microtubules are required for interkinetic nuclear migration, the separation of chromatids in mitosis, nuclear translocation during migration and the outgrowth of neurites. Their importance is underlined by the finding that mutations in a host of microtubule associated proteins cause detrimental neurological disorders. More recently, the structural subunits of microtubules, the tubulin proteins, have been implicated in a spectrum of human diseases collectively known as the tubulinopathies. This chapter reviews the discovery of microtubules, the role they play in neurodevelopment, and catalogues the tubulin isoforms associated with neurodevelopmental disease. Our focus is on the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of tubulin-associated diseases. Finally, we reflect on whether different tubulin genes have distinct intrinsic functions.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2014; 800:75-96. DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-7687-6_5 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periventricular nodular heterotopia is caused by defective neuronal migration that results in heterotopic neuronal nodules lining the lateral ventricles. Mutations in filamin A (FLNA) or ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2) cause periventricular nodular heterotopia, but most patients with this malformation do not have a known aetiology. Using comparative genomic hybridization, we identified 12 patients with developmental brain abnormalities, variably combining periventricular nodular heterotopia, corpus callosum dysgenesis, colpocephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia and polymicrogyria, harbouring a common 1.2 Mb minimal critical deletion in 6q27. These anatomic features were mainly associated with epilepsy, ataxia and cognitive impairment. Using whole exome sequencing in 14 patients with isolated periventricular nodular heterotopia but no copy number variants, we identified one patient with periventricular nodular heterotopia, developmental delay and epilepsy and a de novo missense mutation in the chromosome 6 open reading frame 70 (C6orf70) gene, mapping in the minimal critical deleted region. Using immunohistochemistry and western blots, we demonstrated that in human cell lines, C6orf70 shows primarily a cytoplasmic vesicular puncta-like distribution and that the mutation affects its stability and subcellular distribution. We also performed in utero silencing of C6orf70 and of Phf10 and Dll1, the two additional genes mapping in the 6q27 minimal critical deleted region that are expressed in human and rodent brain. Silencing of C6orf70 in the developing rat neocortex produced periventricular nodular heterotopia that was rescued by concomitant expression of wild-type human C6orf70 protein. Silencing of the contiguous Phf10 or Dll1 genes only produced slightly delayed migration but not periventricular nodular heterotopia. The complex brain phenotype observed in the 6q terminal deletion syndrome likely results from the combined haploinsufficiency of contiguous genes mapping to a small 1.2 Mb region. Our data suggest that, of the genes within this minimal critical region, C6orf70 plays a major role in the control of neuronal migration and its haploinsufficiency or mutation causes periventricular nodular heterotopia.
    Brain 09/2013; 136. DOI:10.1093/brain/awt249 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cells that are responsible for detecting magnetic fields in animals remain undiscovered. Previous studies have proposed that pigeons employ a magnetic sense system that consists of six bilateral patches of magnetite containing dendrites located in the rostral subepidermis of the upper beak. We have challenged this hypothesis arguing that clusters of iron-rich cells in this region are macrophages, not magnetosensitive neurons. Here we present additional data in support of this conclusion. We have undertaken high resolution anatomical mapping of iron-rich cells in the rostral upper beak of pigeons, excluding the possibility that a conserved six-loci magnetic sense system exists. In addition we have extended our immunohistochemical studies to a second cohort of pigeons, confirming that iron rich cells in the upper beak are positive for MHCII and CD44, which are expressed by macrophages. We argue that it is important to critically assess conclusions that have been made in the past, while keeping an open mind as the search for the magnetoreceptor continues.
    Communicative & integrative biology 07/2013; 6(4):e24859. DOI:10.4161/cib.24859
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    ABSTRACT: Hair cells reside in specialized epithelia in the inner ear of vertebrates, mediating the detection of sound, motion, and gravity. The transduction of these stimuli into a neuronal impulse requires the deflection of stereocilia, which are stabilized by the actin-rich cuticular plate. Recent electrophysiological studies have implicated the vestibular system in pigeon magnetosensation [1]. Here we report the discovery of a single iron-rich organelle that resides in the cuticular plate of cochlear and vestibular hair cells in the pigeon. Transmission electron microscopy, coupled with elemental analysis, has shown that this structure is composed of ferritin-like granules, is approximately 300-600 nm in diameter, is spherical, and in some instances is membrane-bound and/or organized in a paracrystalline array. This organelle is found in hair cells in a wide variety of avian species, but not in rodents or in humans. This structure may function as (1) a store of excess iron, (2) a stabilizer of stereocilia, or (3) a mediator of magnetic detection. Given the specific subcellular location, elemental composition, and evolutionary conservation, we propose that this structure is an integral component of the sensory apparatus in birds.
    Current biology: CB 04/2013; 23(10). DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2013.04.025 · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ribosome is an evolutionarily conserved organelle essential for cellular function. Ribosome construction requires assembly of approximately 80 different ribosomal proteins (RPs) and four different species of rRNA. As RPs co-assemble into one multi-subunit complex, mutation of the genes that encode RPs might be expected to give rise to phenocopies, in which the same phenotype is associated with loss-of-function of each individual gene. However, a more complex picture is emerging in which, in addition to a group of shared phenotypes, diverse RP gene-specific phenotypes are observed. Here we report the first two mouse mutations (Rps7(Mtu) and Rps7(Zma)) of ribosomal protein S7 (Rps7), a gene that has been implicated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Rps7 disruption results in decreased body size, abnormal skeletal morphology, mid-ventral white spotting, and eye malformations. These phenotypes are reported in other murine RP mutants and, as demonstrated for some other RP mutations, are ameliorated by Trp53 deficiency. Interestingly, Rps7 mutants have additional overt malformations of the developing central nervous system and deficits in working memory, phenotypes that are not reported in murine or human RP gene mutants. Conversely, Rps7 mouse mutants show no anemia or hyperpigmentation, phenotypes associated with mutation of human RPS7 and other murine RPs, respectively. We provide two novel RP mouse models and expand the repertoire of potential phenotypes that should be examined in RP mutants to further explore the concept of RP gene-specific phenotypes.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2013; 9(1):e1003094. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003094 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of the mammalian cortex requires the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. The vital role that the microtubule cytoskeleton plays in these cellular processes is reflected by the discovery that mutations in various tubulin isotypes cause different neurodevelopmental diseases, including lissencephaly (TUBA1A), polymicrogyria (TUBA1A, TUBB2B, TUBB3), and an ocular motility disorder (TUBB3). Here, we show that Tubb5 is expressed in neurogenic progenitors in the mouse and that its depletion in vivo perturbs the cell cycle of progenitors and alters the position of migrating neurons. We report the occurrence of three microcephalic patients with structural brain abnormalities harboring de novo mutations in TUBB5 (M299V, V353I, and E401K). These mutant proteins, which affect the chaperone-dependent assembly of tubulin heterodimers in different ways, disrupt neurogenic division and/or migration in vivo. Our results provide insight into the functional repertoire of the tubulin gene family, specifically implicating TUBB5 in embryonic neurogenesis and microcephaly.
    Cell Reports 12/2012; 2(6). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2012.11.017 · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary microcephaly is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by reduced head circumference (-3 SDS or more) and mild-to-moderate learning disability. Here, we describe clinical and molecular investigations of a microcephalic child with sensorineural hearing loss. Although consanguinity was unreported initially, detection of 13.7 Mb of copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) on chromosome 9 implicated the CDK5RAP2 gene. Targeted sequencing identified a homozygous E234X mutation, only the third mutation to be described in CDK5RAP2, the first in an individual of non-Pakistani descent. Sensorineural hearing loss is not generally considered to be consistent with autosomal recessive microcephaly and therefore it seems likely that the deafness in this individual is caused by the co-occurrence of a further gene mutation, independent of CDK5RAP2. Nevertheless, further detailed clinical descriptions of rare CDK5RAP2 patients, including hearing assessments will be needed to resolve fully the phenotypic range associated with mutations in this gene. This study also highlights the utility of SNP-array testing to guide disease gene identification where an autosomal recessive condition is plausible. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 10/2012; 158A(10):2577-82. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.35558 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate magnetosensation in vertebrates is a formidable scientific problem. One hypothesis is that magnetic information is transduced into neuronal impulses by using a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor. Previous studies claim to have identified a magnetic sense system in the pigeon, common to avian species, which consists of magnetite-containing trigeminal afferents located at six specific loci in the rostral subepidermis of the beak. These studies have been widely accepted in the field and heavily relied upon by both behavioural biologists and physicists. Here we show that clusters of iron-rich cells in the rostro-medial upper beak of the pigeon Columbia livia are macrophages, not magnetosensitive neurons. Our systematic characterization of the pigeon upper beak identified iron-rich cells in the stratum laxum of the subepidermis, the basal region of the respiratory epithelium and the apex of feather follicles. Using a three-dimensional blueprint of the pigeon beak created by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, we mapped the location of iron-rich cells, revealing unexpected variation in their distribution and number--an observation that is inconsistent with a role in magnetic sensation. Ultrastructure analysis of these cells, which are not unique to the beak, showed that their subcellular architecture includes ferritin-like granules, siderosomes, haemosiderin and filopodia, characteristics of iron-rich macrophages. Our conclusion that these cells are macrophages and not magnetosensitive neurons is supported by immunohistological studies showing co-localization with the antigen-presenting molecule major histocompatibility complex class II. Our work necessitates a renewed search for the true magnetite-dependent magnetoreceptor in birds.
    Nature 04/2012; 484(7394):367-70. DOI:10.1038/nature11046 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) has radically transformed the scientific landscape, making it possible to sequence the exome of any given individual in a cost-effective way. The power of this approach has been demonstrated by a number of groups who have identified pathogenic mutations in small pedigrees that have been resistant to traditional genetic mapping. Recently it has become clear that exome sequencing has great potential with respect to sporadic disease and the identification of de novo mutations. This is highlighted by studies reporting whole-exome sequencing of patient-parental trios affected by learning disability, autism and schizophrenia. It is widely anticipated that the introduction of this technique into a clinical setting will revolutionise genetic diagnosis. However, the sensitivity of NGS exome sequencing is currently unclear. Here, we describe the exome sequencing of DNA samples from a patient with double cortex syndrome and her parents, resulting in the detection of a mosaic splicing mutation in LIS1. This variant was found at an allele frequency of just 18%, demonstrating that NGS methods have the capacity to identify pathogenic mosaic mutations present at a low level.
    Journal of Human Genetics 12/2011; 57(1):70-2. DOI:10.1038/jhg.2011.128 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Jenna mutant mouse harbours an S140G mutation in Tuba1a that impairs tubulin heterodimer formation resulting in defective neuronal migration during development. The consequence of decreased neuronal motility is a fractured pyramidal cell layer in the hippocampus and wave-like perturbations in the cerebral cortex. Here, we extend our characterisation of this mouse investigating the laminar architecture of the superior colliculus (SC). Our results reveal that the structure of the SC in mutant animals is intact; however, it is significantly thinner with an apparent fusion of the intermediate grey and white layers. Birthdate labelling at E12.5 and E13.5 showed that the S140G mutation impairs the radial migration of neurons in the SC. A quantitative assessment of neuronal number in adulthood reveals a massive reduction in postmitotic neurons in mutant animals, which we attribute to increased apoptotic cell death. Consistent with the role of the SC in modulating sensorimotor gating, and the circuitry that modulates this behaviour, we find that Jenna mutants exhibit an exaggerated acoustic startle response. Our results highlight the importance of Tuba1a for correct neuronal migration and implicate postnatal apoptotic cell death in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the tubulinopathies.
    Neuroscience 08/2011; 195(4):191-200. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.08.035 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we combine energy loss magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to map magnetic properties of nanoparticles. We show that it is a functional tool for investigating the magnetic behaviour of bio-mineralized magnetite crystals of Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum. We find that the spatial resolution of our experimental set-up is in the range of less than 2 nm. The results are compared with EMCD studies of abiogenic magnetite.
    Micron 07/2011; 42(5):456-60. DOI:10.1016/j.micron.2011.01.003 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The multitubulin hypothesis holds that each tubulin isotype serves a unique role with respect to microtubule function. Here we investigate the role of the α-tubulin subunit Tuba1a in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the formation of the dentate gyrus. Employing birth date labelling and immunohistological markers, we show that mice harbouring an S140G mutation in Tuba1a present with normal neurogenic potential, but that this neurogenesis is often ectopic. Morphological analysis of the dentate gyrus in adulthood revealed a disorganised subgranular zone and a dispersed granule cell layer. We have shown that these anatomical abnormalities are due to defective migration of prospero-homeobox-1-positive neurons and T-box-brain-2-positive progenitors during development. Such migratory defects may also be responsible for the cytoarchitectural defects observed in the dentate gyrus of patients with mutations in TUBA1A.
    Developmental Neuroscience 10/2010; 32(4):268-77. DOI:10.1159/000319663 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malformations of cortical development are characteristic of a plethora of diseases that includes polymicrogyria, periventricular and subcortical heterotopia and lissencephaly. Mutations in TUBA1A and TUBB2B, each a member of the multigene families that encode alpha- and beta-tubulins, have recently been implicated in these diseases. Here we examine the defects that result from nine disease-causing mutations (I188L, I238V, P263T, L286F, V303G, L397P, R402C, 402H, S419L) in TUBA1A. We show that the expression of all the mutant proteins in vitro results in the generation of tubulin heterodimers in varying yield and that these can co-polymerize with microtubules in vitro. We identify several kinds of defects that result from these mutations. Among these are various defects in the chaperone-dependent pathway leading to de novo tubulin heterodimer formation. These include a defective interaction with the chaperone prefoldin, a reduced efficiency in the generation of productive folding intermediates as a result of inefficient interaction with the cytosolic chaperonin, CCT, and, in several cases, a failure to stably interact with TBCB, one of five tubulin-specific chaperones that act downstream of CCT in the tubulin heterodimer assembly pathway. Other defects include structural instability in vitro, diminished stability in vivo, a compromised ability to co-assemble with microtubules in vivo and a suppression of microtubule growth rate in the neurites (but not the soma) of cultured neurons. Our data are consistent with the notion that some mutations in TUBA1A result in tubulin deficit, whereas others reflect compromised interactions with one or more MAPs that are essential to proper neuronal migration.
    Human Molecular Genetics 09/2010; 19(18):3599-613. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddq276 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2010; 86(5):819-22; author reply 822-3. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.03.019 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymicrogyria is a relatively common but poorly understood defect of cortical development characterized by numerous small gyri and a thick disorganized cortical plate lacking normal lamination. Here we report de novo mutations in a beta-tubulin gene, TUBB2B, in four individuals and a 27-gestational-week fetus with bilateral asymmetrical polymicrogyria. Neuropathological examination of the fetus revealed an absence of cortical lamination associated with the presence of ectopic neuronal cells in the white matter and in the leptomeningeal spaces due to breaches in the pial basement membrane. In utero RNAi-based inactivation demonstrates that TUBB2B is required for neuronal migration. We also show that two disease-associated mutations lead to impaired formation of tubulin heterodimers. These observations, together with previous data, show that disruption of microtubule-based processes underlies a large spectrum of neuronal migration disorders that includes not only lissencephaly and pachygyria, but also polymicrogyria malformations.
    Nature Genetics 06/2009; 41(6):746-52. DOI:10.1038/ng.380 · 29.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
322.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Research Institute of Molecular Pathology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2014
    • Campus Vienna Biocenter (CVBC)
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Oxford
      • • Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
      • • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2003
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia