David Kaczan

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (11)8.19 Total impact

  • John Ward, David Kaczan
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    ABSTRACT: Water poverty in the Niger River Basin is a function of physical constraints affecting access and supply, and institutional arrangements affecting the ability to utilise the water resource. This distinction reflects the complexity of water poverty and points to the need to look beyond technical and financial means alone to reduce its prevalence and severity. Policy decisions affecting water resources are generally made at a state or national level. Hydrological and socio-economic evaluations at these levels, or at the basin level, cannot be presumed to be concordant with the differentiation of poverty or livelihood vulnerability at more local levels. We focus on three objectives: first, the initial mapping of observed poverty, using two health metrics and a household assets metric; second, the estimation of factors which potentially influence the observed poverty patterns; and third, a consideration of spatial non-stationarity, which identifies spatial correlates of poverty in the places where their effects appear most severe. We quantify the extent to which different levels of analysis influence these results. Comparative analysis of correlates of poverty at basin, national and local levels shows limited congruence. Variation in water quantity, and the presence of irrigation and dams had either limited or no significant correlation with observed variation in poverty measures across levels. Education and access to improved water quality were the only variables consistently significant and spatially stable across the entire basin. At all levels, education is the most consistent non-water correlate of poverty while access to protected water sources is the strongest water related correlate. The analysis indicates that landscape and scale matter for understanding water-poverty linkages and for devising policy concerned with alleviating water poverty. Interactions between environmental, social and institutional factors are complex and consequently a comprehensive understanding of poverty and its causes requires analysis at multiple spatial resolutions. Crown Copyright
    Journal of Hydrology 11/2014; 519:2501-2514. DOI:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.068 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs aim to improve environmental outcomes by providing direct incentives to land managers for the provision of ecosystem services. Participation in PES programs is voluntary, so effective program design requires careful consideration of farmers' preferences. This study quantifies such preferences using a choice experiment. The study site is the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, an internationally recognized ‘biodiversity hotspot.’ We assess preferences for four payment approaches: constant and variable annual cash payments to individual farmers, a constant annual cash payment to a village fund on behalf of farmers, and an upfront manure fertilizer payment. We find that the manure fertilizer payment was statistically significant in motivating farmer participation while the group payment was non-significant. In addition, the relationship between the likelihood of participation and the stringency of conditionality is surprisingly non-linear. In a test of external validity, average willingness to accept (WTA) values are found to be similar to the average opportunity cost of maintaining land uses consistent with conservation objectives.
    Ecological Economics 11/2013; 95:20–30. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.07.011 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    Investing in Water for a Green Economy: Services, Infrastructure, Policies and Management, Edited by M. D. Young, C. Esau, 01/2013: chapter 9. Challenging hydrological panaceas: Evidence from the Niger River basin: pages 177-198; Routledge, New York., ISBN: 978-0-415-50125-5
  • David Kaczan, John Ward
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    ABSTRACT: There is a general consensus that agricultural water scarcity contributes to the severe levels of poverty observed in Africa. However, the results of analyses to determine whether a lack of water is either actively contributing to the poverty observed, or when it is incidental, have been inconsistent. This paper examines the extent to which country-level water statistics and poverty/development statistics align. The authors find limited correlation, suggesting either that the water–poverty relationship is relatively inconsequential, or more likely, that the aggregated nature of these statistics obscures the actual relationship. The authors suggest that variables that better capture spatial heterogeneity may help rectify this.
    Water International 05/2011; 36(3-3):283-294. DOI:10.1080/02508060.2011.583102 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors analysed livelihood conditions in 10 river basins over three continents to identify generalizable links between water, agriculture and poverty. There were significant variations in hydrological conditions, livelihood strategies and institutions across basins, but also systematic patterns across levels of economic development. At all levels, access to water is influenced by local, regional or national institutions, while the importance of national versus local institutions and livelihood strategies vary with economic development. The cross-basin analysis suggests a framework for thinking about water–agriculture–poverty links that can inform future research and policy development.
    Water International 01/2011; 36(1):125-140. DOI:10.1080/02508060.2011.541015 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Livelihoods in the Niger River basin rely mainly on rainfed agriculture, except in the dry extreme north. Low yields and water productivity result from low inputs, short growing seasons, dry spells, and excessive water. The overlap of traditional and modern rules impedes secure access to water and investments in agriculture by generating uncertain land tenure. Improved agriculture and water management require technical, sociological, and regulatory changes to address the wider causes of poverty. Illiteracy and poor water quality, both correlated with high infant mortality, are pressing problems. Rapidly increasing population, climatic changes and dam construction contribute to rural vulnerability.
    Water International 11/2010; 35(5):594-622. DOI:10.1080/02508060.2010.515545 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article evaluates irrigated agriculture sector response and resultant economic impacts of climate change for a part of the Murray Darling Basin in Australia. A water balance model is used to predict reduced basin inflows for mild, moderate and severe climate change scenarios involving 1, 2 and 4°C warming, and predict 13, 38 and 63% reduced inflows. Impact on irrigated agricultural production and profitability are estimated with a mathematical programming model using a two-stage approach that simultaneously estimates short and long-run adjustments. The model accounts for a range of adaptive responses including: deficit irrigation, temporarily following of some areas, permanently reducing the irrigated area and changing the mix of crops. The results suggest that relatively low cost adaptation strategies are available for a moderate reduction in water availability and thus costs of such a reduction are likely to be relatively small. In more severe climate change scenarios greater costs are estimated. Adaptations predicted include a reduction in total area irrigated and investments in efficient irrigation. A shift away from perennial to annual crops is also predicted as the latter can be managed more profitably when water allocations in some years are very low. Copyright 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation 2009 Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Inc. and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 07/2009; 53(3):437-456. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8489.2009.00460.x · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article evaluates irrigated agriculture sector response and resultant economic impacts of climate change for a part of the Murray Darling Basin in Australia. A water balance model is used to predict reduced basin inflows for mild, moderate and severe climate change scenarios involving 10, 20, 40 Celcius warming, and predict 13%, 38% and 63% reduced inflows. Impact on irrigated agricultural production and profitability are estimated with a mathematical programming model using a two-stage approach that simultaneously estimates short and long-run adjustments. The model accounts for a range of adaptive responses including: deficit irrigation, temporarily fallowing some areas, and permanently reducing irrigated area and changing the mix of crops. The results suggest that relatively low cost adaptation strategies are available for moderate reduction in water availability and thus costs of such reduction are likely to be relatively small. In more severe climate change scenarios greater costs are estimated, adaptations predicted include a reduction in total area irrigated, investments in efficient irrigation, and a shift away from perennial to annual crops as the latter can be managed more profitably when water allocations in some years are very low.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article evaluates irrigated agriculture sector response and resultant economic impacts of climate change for a part of the Murray Darling Basin in Australia. A water balance model is used to predict reduced basin inflows for mild, moderate and severe climate change scenarios involving 10, 20, 40 Celcius warming, and predict 13%, 38% and 63% reduced inflows. Impact on irrigated agricultural production and profitability are estimated with a mathematical programming model using a two-stage approach that simultaneously estimates short and long-run adjustments. The model accounts for a range of adaptive responses including: deficit irrigation, temporarily fallowing some areas, and permanently reducing irrigated area and changing the mix of crops. The results suggest that relatively low cost adaptation strategies are available for moderate reduction in water availability and thus costs of such reduction are likely to be relatively small. In more severe climate change scenarios greater costs are estimated, adaptations predicted include a reduction in total area irrigated, investments in efficient irrigation, and a shift away from perennial to annual crops as the latter can be managed more profitably when water allocations in some years are very low.
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    ABSTRACT: Replaced with revised version of paper 09/27/11.
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    ABSTRACT: Global warming,is a complex,issue. Governments,require objective scientific information on the causes, the potential consequences and the options for mitigation and adaptation. However, the uncertainty regarding the impact of climate change is due to both economic and biophysical unknowns, and thus the development of feasible policy options requires economic research. Here, the results of a contingent valuation survey are reported for Australia. An emphasis,is placed,on understanding the impact,of demographic,and behavioural,variables on support,for proactive