[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify degrees of exposure to community violence reported by parents and guardians of children from four to 12 years of age and the association with childhood asthma symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,232 parents/guardians in 24 peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, Brazil. The authors investigated asthma symptoms in children and acts of violence in the community. More than 75% of parents/guardians had been exposed to community violence in the previous year, with 20% reporting high levels of exposure. Children that were more exposed to violence showed higher asthma prevalence (28.4%) as compared to non-exposed children (16.4%). Children exposed to maximum levels of violence were nearly twice as likely to present asthma symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36). The study highlighted the relevance of community violence as a risk factor for asthma and the need for further research to elucidate methodological issues.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 01/2012; 28(1):86-94. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2012000100009 · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) is one of the most widely used instruments in the world for investigating domestic violence against children, but targeted use has proven inadequate given the phenomenon's complexity. This study focused on the factor structure of CTSPC scales in an urban population in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 1,370 children in Salvador, Bahia State. Factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was performed, and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient was calculated. Factor analysis showed a different distribution of items in the factors as compared to the original instrument. Violence showed a gradual profile in each factor. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient was 0.63 for factor 1, 0.59 for factor 2, and 0.42 for factor 3. The items behaved differently from the original instrument, corroborating international studies. These findings support proposing a resizing of the CTSPC.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 11/2011; 27(11):2215-26. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2011001100015 · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite improvements in the nutritional status of Brazilian children, child malnutrition remains a public health issue. The objective of the present study was to analyse the effect of maternal common mental disorders (MCMD) on child malnutrition in a large Brazilian urban centre with low rates of child malnutrition. Furthermore, we explored the hypothesis that a reduction in the quality of maternal caregiving mediates the relationship between maternal mental health problems and child nutrition.
A case-control study including 294 children aged between 0 and 5 years, with 147 cases and 147 age- and sex-matched controls, was conducted in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Mothers completed the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the family's socio-economic status was evaluated and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory was applied. Children were diagnosed as moderately or severely malnourished when the weight-for-height z-score was below -2 SD. Conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis, and the final model was created using the backward technique.
MCMD doubled the risk of moderate or severe malnutrition in children (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.10-3.78). Maternal caregiving can be an important factor mediating the relationship between maternal mental health and child malnutrition.
MCMD must be taken into account in programmes for the treatment and prevention of malnutrition, especially in areas of low malnutrition prevalence.
Social Psychiatry 07/2011; 46(7):543-8. DOI:10.1007/s00127-010-0220-4 · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that asthma represents a major health issue not only in children of developed countries but also in urban centers in some middle-income countries. Brazil has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma. This article examines the relationship between maternal mental disorders and the prevalence of asthma in low-income children from an inner city area of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is part of the SCAALA program (Social Change, Allergy and Asthma in Latin America).
A total of 1,087 children between the ages of 5 and 12 were investigated, together with their mothers. The mothers' mental health was evaluated using the SRQ-20, an instrument for the psychiatric screening of minor psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic complaints). The prevalence of asthma was investigated using the ISAAC survey, a standardized, validated questionnaire for asthma and other allergic diseases. Cases were defined as asthma if the patient reported having had wheezing in the previous 12 months in addition to at least one of the following: having asthma, wheezing while exercising, waking during the night because of wheezing, or having had at least four episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test to allergens.
The presence of minor psychiatric disorders in the mothers was significantly associated with the presence of asthma in the children, and this association was consistent with all forms of asthma, irrespective of whether it was atopic or nonatopic. Future studies should be carried out to further investigate this association and the potential biological mechanisms involved. Programs for asthma control should include strategies for stress reduction and psychological support for the families of asthmatic children.
Social Psychiatry 11/2008; 44(5):416-20. DOI:10.1007/s00127-008-0450-x · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to provide an understanding of diagnosis, demographic characteristics, and treatment procedures for children and adolescents attending Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPSIS) in Brazil, 2003. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study using secondary data. The analysis considered three groups of variables related to: (a) the nature of the services; (b) patient profile; and (c) types of care. Seven CAPSIS that had recorded their procedures during all 12 months of 2003 participated in the study. The units involved treated 1,456 individuals, 62.8% of whom were males 11-13 years of age. Nearly half (49.3%) were treated in non-intensive care. The most frequent diagnoses were behavioral and emotional disorders (44.5%). There was no record of treatment related to use of psychoactive substances. The proportion of severe disorders was 19.4%. The CAPSIS operate in similar fashion to older outpatient units, but treat a variety of problems, creating a record according to types of activities. These services fill a historical gap in public mental health care for children and adolescents.
Cadernos de Saúde Pública 04/2008; 24(3):633-42. · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The caregiver-child relationship is important for child development. The prevalence of mental disorders was assessed in a female caregiver group and associated with socioenvironmental factors.
A cross sectional study was conducted in 326 caregivers whose children have been participating in a cohort study on mental development since 1999.
The overall prevalence of mental disorders assessed according to the CIDI version 2.1 was 47.5% (95% CI 0.42-0.53). They were predominantly anxiety disorders (32.8%; 95%CI 0.27-0.38), followed by mood disorders (26.1%; 95%CI 0.21-0.31) and psychoactive substance abuse (10.1%; 95%CI 0.07-0.13). Anxiety and mood disorders were less likely in younger caregivers and substance abuse disorder was less likely among those better educated.
The overall prevalence was similar to previous estimates, although 32.8% of anxiety disorders exceeded previous findings, which is unsurprising in a female sample.
Younger caregivers with higher schooling were more likely to have better mental health, which favors child development.
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 07/2006; 28(2):111-7. DOI:10.1590/S1516-44462006000200007 · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the association between quality of stimulation in the family environment and child's cognitive development considering the impact of mother's schooling on the quality of stimulation.
A cross-sectional study comprising 350 children aged 17-42 months was carried out in central and peripheral areas of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, in 1999. A socio-economic questionnaire was used, along with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Scale (HOME Inventory), and the Bayley Scale for Infant Development. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out through linear regression at 5% level of significance.
There was a positive (beta=0.66) and statistically significant association between quality of stimulation in the family environment and child's cognitive development. Part of the effect was mediated by the mother's working circumstances and educational level. It was verified that a better quality of stimulation is provided for those who come early in the birth order in family, and live with only a few others under five years of age. This pattern of stimulation is better among children who live with their parents and whose mothers have better education, have a job and a partner involved in the family environment.
Quality of stimulation in the family environment is crucial for child's cognitive development, besides the significant role of the available resources and family dynamics. The study findings show the pertinence to cognitive development of interventions which improve the quality of the environment and the child-caregiver relationship.
Revista de Saúde Pública 09/2005; 39(4):606-11. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the association between quality of stimulation in the family environment and child's cognitive development considering the impact of mother's schooling on the quality of stimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the methodology, applicability and utility of the Raven Progressive Matrix (Raven Test) and the Brazilian Intellectual Probe (TSI), comparing them with school achievement in a typical medium-size urban community of Northeastern Brazil. 388 schoolchildren (7-17 years old) were examined, with 371 Raven tests applied. Only 231 TSIs were completed, since 106 students were illiterate. School grades were obtained for all participants. A questionnaire evaluating school resources, and teacher profiles was answered by 200 teachers. Raven and TSI test scores were highly correlated (r = 0.53, p < 0.001), but both correlated weakly with overall school grade (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and r = 0.12, p < 0.07 respectively). For individual school grades, the Raven scores showed statistically significant correlation with all subjects, while the Brazilian TSI presented statistically significant correlation only with geography, history and sciences. Boys' mean scores were higher than girls' for both the Raven and the TSI Tests, but for the school grades girls performed better. In general, level of cognitive development was below that expected for children in the age-group analyzed.
Cadernos de Saúde Pública 06/2002; 18(3):723-33. · 0.89 Impact Factor