[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-resistance printed conductors are crucial for the development of ultra-low cost electronic systems such as radio frequency identification tags. Low resistance conductors are required to enable the fabrication of high-Q inductors, capacitors, tuned circuits, and interconnects. Furthermore, conductors of appropriate workfunction are also required to enable fabrication of printed Schottky diodes, necessary for rectification in RFID circuits. Last year, we demonstrated the formation of low-resistance conductive printed structures using gold nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, technologies for formation of printed conductors using silver and copper nanoparticles. These are particularly advantageous for several reasons. First, both silver and copper offer a 2X reduction in sheet resistance over gold, resulting in improved interconnect performance and inductor Q. Second, the material costs associated with both silver and copper are expected to be significantly cheaper than gold. Third, the workfunction of silver enables the fabrication of all-printed Schottky diodes with a silver rectifying contact to many common printable organic semiconductors. Solutions of organic-encapsulated silver and copper nanoparticles may be printed and subsequently annealed to form low-resistance conductor patterns. We describe novel processes for forming silver and copper nanoparticles, and discuss the optimization of the printing/annealing processes to demonstrate plastic-compatible low-resistance conductors. By optimizing both the size of the nanoparticle and the encapsulant sublimation kinetics, it is possible to produce particles that anneal at low-temperatures (<150 °C) to form continuous films having low resistivity and appropriate workfunction for formation of rectifying contacts. This represents a major component required for all-printed RFID.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transparent conductive oxides are promising candidates for realization of transparent electronics for display applications. The use of solution-processing techniques allows for a dramatic reduction in cost per unit area of electronic functionality. As a result, there is tremendous interest in the use of solution-processed transparent conductive oxides for realization of low-cost transparent electronic systems. Zinc oxide is processable out of solution using a variety of routes, including the use of nanoparticles, nanowires, and chemical bath deposition. By optimizing the deposition processes, it is possible to realize solution-processed transparent semiconductor films offering performance that is comparable to or better than amorphous silicon, while offering the advantages of transparency. Here, techniques for fabrication of solution-processed ZnO-based transistors are reviewed, and the outlook for such technologies is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, printing has received substantial interest as a technique for realizing low cost, large area electronic systems. Printing allows the use of purely additive processing, thus lowering process complexity and material usage. Coupled with the use of low-cost substrates such as plastic, metal foils, etc., it is expected that printed electronics will enable the realization of a wide range of easily deployable electronic systems, including displays, sensors, and RFID tags. We review our work on the development of technologies and applications for printed electronics. By combining synthetically derived inorganic nanoparticles and organic materials, we have realized a range of printable electronic ldquoinksrdquo, and used these to demonstrate printed passive components, multilayer interconnection, diodes, transistors, memories, batteries, and various types of gas and biosensors. By exploiting the ability of printing to cheaply allow for the integration of diverse functionalities and materials onto the same substrate, therefore, it is possible to realize printed systems that exploit the advantages of printing while working around the disadvantages of the same.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, we review our progress developing techniques for printing transparent transistors using various routes to realize solution-processed zinc oxide. We demonstrate printable ZnO inks based on ZnO nanoparticles, and realize transistors using this material as the channel. Additionally, we demonstrate a novel process for fabricating ZnO devices using chemical bath deposition. Pre-patterning may be achieved using printing, and subsequent chemical bath deposition is used to realize transparent ZnO films. Thus, through a combination of materials and process development, we demonstrate important steps towards the realization of printed transparent electronics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solution-processed transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) transistors are demonstrated using a chemical bath deposition process for ZnO deposition. The process is glass compatible and amenable to producing fully transparent electronics. Mobility as high as 3.5 cm<sup>2</sup>/V ldr s with on-off ratios of ~10<sup>5</sup> is realized. The transparency of ZnO allows for complete coverage of the pixel by the pixel drive transistors; analysis shows that the performance achieved herein is sufficient even to drive high-brightness organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays by exploiting the high mobility and optical transparency of these devices. This makes this technology extremely attractive for use in active-matrix OLED display applications.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 07/2007; 54(6-54):1301 - 1307. DOI:10.1109/TED.2007.895861 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we have discussed our development of various printed electronics technologies targeted at meeting the needs of various optimal applications for printed electronics. While several concerns remain, particularly related to stability and reliability, the potential for printed electronics is strong, and progress will continue, driven by development of new materials and processes designed to exploit the opportunities that exist at the intersection of economics and engineering through the benefits of printing
VLSI Technology, Systems, and Applications, 2006 International Symposium on; 05/2006
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Printed electronics holds promise for realizing ultra-low-cost RFID tags for item-level tracking of consumer goods. We report on our progress in developing all-printed RFID tags. We review the development of printable materials for these applications, summarize the characteristics of printed devices, and discuss the implications of these on circuit performance limits and needs. Based on this assessment, we discuss the outlook for all-printed RFID tags and identify the problems remaining to be solved and the efforts taking place in this regard.
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on VLSI Design 01/2006; DOI:10.1109/VLSID.2006.34
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Printed electronics provides a promising potential pathway toward the realization of ultralow-cost RFID tags for item-level tracking of consumer goods. Here, we report on our progress in developing materials, processes, and devices for the realization of ultralow-cost printed RFID tags. Using printed nanoparticle patterns that are subsequently sintered at plastic-compatible temperatures, low-resistance interconnects and passive components have been realized. Simultaneously, printed transistors with mobilities >10<sup>-1</sup> cm<sup>2</sup>/V-s have been realized using novel pentacene and oligothiophene precursors for pMOS and ZnO nanoparticles for nMOS. AC performance of these devices is adequate for 135-kHz RFID, though significant work remains to be done to achieve 13.56-MHz operation.
Proceedings of the IEEE 08/2005; 93(7-93):1330 - 1338. DOI:10.1109/JPROC.2005.850305 · 4.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Printed electronics is attractive as a pathway towards the realization
of ultra-low-cost RFID tags for replacement of conventional optical
barcodes. While this application has received tremendous attention in
recent years, it also represents one of the most challenging
applications for organic transistors, based on both the performance
requirements and the process complexity and cost implications. Here, we
report on our progress in developing materials and processes for the
realization of printed transistors for low-cost RFID applications. Using
inkjet printing of novel conductors, dielectrics, and organic
semiconductors, we have realized printed transistors with mobilities
>0.1cm2/V-s, which is approaching the requirements of
certain RFID applications. We review the performance of these devices,
and discuss optimization strategies for achieving the ultimate
performance goals requisite for realizing printed RFID.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 08/2005; 5940:199-207. DOI:10.1117/12.617286 · 0.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the highest performance all-printed transistors reported to date. Using nanoparticle-based printed contact, polymer dielectrics, and a printed soluble pentacene precursor semiconductor, we demonstrate all-inkjetted devices with mobilities >0.1cm<sup>2</sup>/V-s and on-off ratios as high as 10<sup>4</sup>. The performance of these devices is comparable to control devices fabricated on silicon-substrates, and thus, these devices represent a significant step towards the realization of low-cost printed electronics.
Electron Devices Meeting, 2004. IEDM Technical Digest. IEEE International; 01/2005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An all ink-jet-deposited process capable of creating high-quality passive devices suitable for an RFID front-end is described. Gold nanocrystals are printed to create conductive lines with sheet resistance as low as 23 mΩ per square. Optimal printing conditions are found for polyimide dielectric layers and films as thin as 340 nm are produced. These results are used to create spiral inductors, interconnect, and parallel plate capacitors.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 01/2005; 51(12-51):1978 - 1983. DOI:10.1109/TED.2004.838451 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate an all-printed passive component technology on plastic, including inductors, capacitors, and multilevel interconnects. This represents an important step towards the development of ultra-low-cost RFID on plastic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low resistance conductors are crucial for the development of ultra-low-cost electronic systems such as radio frequency identification tags. Low resistance conductors are required to enable the fabrication of high-Q inductors, capacitors, tuned circuits, and interconnects. The fabrication of these circuits by printing will enable a dramatic reduction in cost, through the elimination of lithography, vacuum processing, and the need for high-cost substrates. Solutions of organic-encapsulated gold nanoparticles many be printed and subsequently annealed to form low resistance conductor patterns. We describe a process to form the same, and discuss the optimization of the process to demonstrate plastic-compatible gold conductors for the first time. By optimizing both the size of the nanoparticle and the length of the alkanethiol encapsulant, it is possible to produce particles that anneal at low temperatures (<150&DEG;C) to form continuous gold films having low resistivity. We demonstrate the printing of these materials using an inkjet printer to demonstrate a plastic-compatible low resistance conductor technology. (C) 2003 The Electrochemical Society.
Journal of The Electrochemical Society 07/2003; 150(7). DOI:10.1149/1.1582466 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Printed organic electronics is promising for realizing low-cost flexible displays and RFID tags. We describe the state of the art in printed organic electronics, focusing on advanced materials currently being studied to realize devices with enhanced performance, including soluble oligomer semiconductor precursors, printable self-assembled monolayer dielectrics, and printable high-K dielectric precursors. These materials should enable the realization of devices with low operating voltages and carrier mobilities sufficiently high for the demonstration of high-quality displays and RFID tags on plastic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been tremendous interest in all-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits with uses in displays and disposable electronics applications such as RFID tags. While there have been a few demonstrations of printed organic transistors to date, there has been little work on the associated passive component and interconnection technologies required to enable the development of all-printed RFID circuits. In particular, low-resistance conductors are crucial to achieve the high-Q inductors necessary for RFID. Here, we demonstrate inkjetted nanoparticle-Au conductors on plastic with sheet resistances as low as 0.03 ohms/square. We describe the optimization of the jetting parameters, and their impact on final film morphology and electrical properties. We also demonstrate a bridging technology based on an inkjetted polyimide interlevel dielectric. Using this process, we demonstrate multilevel interconnect and passive component structures including conductor patterns, crossover bridges, and tapped planar spiral inductors. Together, these represent an important step towards the realization of all-printed RFID.