[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA), a purine analog, has become universally accepted as the agent of choice in treating hairy cell leukemia (HCL). However, few studies have reported long-term outcomes after 2-CdA treatment. Between January 1990 and June 2003, 86 consecutive patients with HCL were treated with a single 7-day course of 2-CdA by continuous infusion at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg per day. Of the 86 patients (mean age: 49 years), 67 patients (79%) achieved a complete remission (CR); 18 patients (21%) achieved a partial remission (PR); and 1 patient's response was unable to be assessed. The progression-free survival (PFS) for initial relapse after 12 years was 54%. At a median follow-up of 9.7 years (range, 0.3-13.8 years), 31 (36%) of 85 patients relapsed. There were 23 relapsed patients treated with a second cycle of 2-CdA; 2 patients were treated with alternative agents; and 6 patients were observed. Of the 23 relapsed patients retreated with 2-CdA, 12 (52%) achieved a CR and 7 (30%) patients achieved a PR (overall response rate: 83%). The overall survival (OS) rate after 12 years was 87%. There were 15 patients (17%) who developed other malignancies. Long-term follow-up of up to 14 years (median: 9.7 years) showed an excellent PFS and OS for HCL patients after 2-CdA treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been observed that some patients in complete remission (CR) after 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) for hairy cell leukemia (HCL) have hypocellular bone marrow biopsies despite normal peripheral blood cell counts. This discrepancy between bone marrow cellularity and peripheral blood cell counts suggests the possibility of abnormal sites of hematopoiesis. To determine sites of hematopoiesis, 11 radionuclide scans using technetium-99m (99mTc) sulfur colloid were performed in eight patients. Although no single, pattern was observed on the 99mTc sulfur colloid scans, two of the eight patients, both with virtually aplastic marrows, had multiple areas of increased uptake in the distal appendicular skeleton, suggesting abnormal sites of hematopoiesis. The same two patients had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which confirmed the abnormal sites of hematopoiesis.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 10/1999; 35(1-2):171-7. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purine nucleoside analogues 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (2'-DCF) induce complete remission (CR) in the majority of patients with hairy cell leukemia. However, minimal residual disease (MRD) has been detected in bone marrow core biopsies using immunohistochemical techniques in patients achieving CR by conventional criteria. This study was designed to compare the prevalence of MRD with each agent in patients in CR by using conventional criteria and the relapse-free survival for patients with and without MRD. Bone marrow biopsies from 39 patients treated with a single cycle of 2-CdA and 27 patients treated with multiple cycles of 2'-DCF were studied. The monoclonal antibodies anti-CD20, DBA.44, and anti-CD45RO were used to evaluate the paraffin-embedded bone marrow core biopsies for MRD. Five of 39 patients (13%) treated with 2-CdA had MRD, as compared to 7 of 27 patients (26%) treated with 2'-DCF (two-tailed P = 0.21). Relapse has occurred in two of the five patients with MRD after 2-CdA treatment and in four of the seven patients with MRD after 2'-DCF treatment. In total, 6 of the 12 patients (50%) with MRD have relapsed, whereas 3 of 54 patients (6%) without MRD have relapsed, and 2 patients have died without evidence of relapse. The estimated 4-year relapse-free survival among patients with MRD is 55% (+/- 15%, SE), compared to 88% (+/- 5%, SE) among patients without MRD (two-tailed P = 0.0023). The prevalence of MRD detected in a subset of patients in CR after either 2-CdA or 2'-DCF treatment did not differ significantly. However, the presence of MRD is associated with an increased risk of relapse.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/1999; 5(7):1665-70. · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hairy-cell leukemia (HCL) is uncommon, remarkable progress has been made in the treatment of patients with this disease. Because of their unique mechanisms of action, the purine analogs, 2'-deoxycoformycin (2'-DCF) and 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA), are naturally targeted to lymphocytes and are cytotoxic to both resting and dividing cells. Both of these agents induce durable complete remissions (CRs) in the overwhelming majority of patients. Remarkably, equally high rates of durable CR are achieved in both untreated and previously treated patients. Furthermore, patients with large tumor burdens fare as well as those with minimal disease. Therefore, these agents have emerged as the treatments of choice for all patients with hairy-cell leukemia and have supplanted earlier treatments such as splenectomy and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Since a single 7-day cycle of 2-CdA leads to excellent outcomes and is associated with few toxicities other than culture-negative fever, this agent is particularly attractive and may offer some advantages. However, given the indolent natural history of HCL, long-term follow-up study will be required to determine if one purine analog offers a survival advantage over the other.
Seminars in Hematology 05/1999; 36(2):155-63. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypocholesterolemia is a well-documented phenomenon associated with a variety of hematological malignancies and nonmalignant disorders associated with splenomegaly. To determine the incidence of hypocholesterolemia in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), we measured the serum cholesterol levels before and after a single cycle of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) in 46 patients. The mean pre-treatment serum cholesterol level was 152.8 mg/dl (range, 60 to 293 mg/dl). The mean post-treatment serum cholesterol level was 190.0 mg/dl. This was significantly higher than the pre-treatment values (P <0.0001). Twelve patients who had previously undergone splenectomy showed a similar response to treatment, with a pre-treatment value of 180.0 mg/dl and a post-treatment value of 219.8 mg/dl (P < 0.0001). However, there was a significant difference in the pre-treatment serum cholesterol levels in the nonsplenectomized patients (143.0 mg/dl) compared to the splenectomized patients (180.0 mg/dl) (P < 0.03). The pre-treatment serum cholesterol did not correlate with the pre-treatment splenic index (correlation coefficient = -0.39, P < 0.065). Similarly, there was no correlation between the change in splenic index and the change in serum cholesterol level post-treatment. These findings suggest that hypocholesterolemia in HCL is related to tumor burden and not to splenomegaly alone. Since cholesterol is critical to hairy cell metabolism and structure, treatment strategies interfering with cholesterol synthesis may be productive.
American Journal of Hematology 07/1997; 55(3):129-33. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) is effective in inducing complete remissions (CRs) in the majority of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), neither the actual relapse rate, the clinical factors that may predict relapse, the long-term outcome, nor the response rate to re-treatment at relapse has been clearly determined. Fifty-two consecutive patients with previously untreated or treated HCL were treated with 2-CdA at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/d by continuous intravenous infusion for 7 days. Of 50 assessable patients, 40 (80%) achieved CR, and 9 (18%) achieved partial remission (PR). A total of 7 patients (14%) have relapsed, at a median duration of 24 months (range, 12 to 44). Of the 7 relapsed patients, 5 were re-treated with a second cycle of 2-CdA; 2 achieved a second CR and 3 attained a PR. The progression-free survival (PFS) rate is 72% at 4 years for all 52 patients and 83% for patients achieving CR. The overall survival (OS) rate is 86% at 4 years. Only prior therapy was predictive of relapse. The majority of patients achieve durable CRs with a single cycle of 2-CdA. The relapse rate is low and the long-term prognosis is excellent. The few patients who relapse can attain second remissions after re-treatment with 2-CdA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minimal residual disease (MRD) can be detected in bone marrow core biopsies of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) after treatment with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of MRD predicts bone marrow relapse. We studied paraffin-embedded bone marrow core biopsies from 39 patients with HCL in complete remission (CR) 3 months after a single cycle of 2-CdA. Biopsies performed 3 months posttherapy and annually thereafter were examined by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and IHC using the monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) anti-CD45RO, anti-CD20, and DBA.44. At 3 months after therapy, 5 of 39 (13%) patients had MRD detectable by IHC that was not evident by routine H&E staining. Two of the five patients (40%) with MRD at 3 months have relapsed, whereas only 2 of 27 (7%) patients with no MRD and at least 1 year of follow up relapsed (P = .11). Over the 3-year follow-up period, two additional patients developed MRD. Overall, three of six (50%) patients with MRD detected at any time after therapy have relapsed, whereas only 1 of 25 (4%) patients without MRD has relapsed (P = .016). These data suggest that the presence of MRD after treatment with 2-CdA may predict relapse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report reviews the unique development of a vasculitic syndrome involving medium-sized arteries in a man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL). This case has many features in common with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN), and this may represent the first instance in which CPAN developed in the setting of CMMoL.
American Journal of Hematology 01/1996; 50(4):310-2. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cladribine (2-CdA), a purine analog resistant to adenosine deaminase, has significant activity in a variety of lymphoproliferative diseases. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of 2-CdA in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
Twenty-six patients aged 40 to 88 years (median, 64) who either had relapsed after an initial response or were refractory to conventional chemotherapy with at least an alkylating agent were treated with 2-CdA 0.1 mg/kg/d by continuous intravenous infusion for either 5 or 7 days every 28 days for a maximum of six cycles.
No complete remissions (CRs) occurred. Eight of 26 patients (31%) achieved a partial remission (PR). The actuarial median time to progression (TTF) in responding patients is 16 months (range, 6 to 22). The actuarial median survival duration of the responding patients is 12 months (range, 8 to 28). Eight of 26 patients (31%) sustained early toxicity. Seven of these eight patients died before the first reevaluation of infection (n = 3), pericardial tamponade (n = 1), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (n = 1), and stroke (n = 2). No nausea, emesis, alopecia, or renal, hepatic, or cardiac toxicity was observed.
2-CdA has activity in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. However, patients who have received multiple prior regimens that included fludarabine are less likely to respond, and there can be significant morbidity. Treatment of patients with less prior therapy earlier in the natural history of the disease may lead to improved and more durable responses.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/1995; 13(4):983-8. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the response rate to 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA; cladribine) in patients with advanced indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who fail to respond to or progress after a response to standard chemotherapy drugs.
Twenty-one patients were treated with at least one cycle of 2-CdA 0.1 mg/kg/d by continuous infusion for 5 or 7 days.
The overall response rate (complete response [CR] and partial response [PR]) was nine of 21 patients (43%; 95% confidence interval, 22% to 64%). Unmaintained durable responses (longest follow-up, 29+ months) have been observed. The treatment was well tolerated by all patients. The major toxicity was related to myelosuppression (predominantly neutropenia) and immunosuppression with infection.
The purine analog 2-CdA is an active salvage therapy in pretreated patients with indolent NHL, and deserves further assessment in untreated patients and in combination with other chemotherapy agents.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/1994; 12(4):788-92. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of computed tomography (CT) in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), we report a series of 43 patients prospectively evaluated for internal adenopathy by CT before and after treatment with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA).
CT was performed on 43 consecutive patients with HCL before and 3 months after a single cycle of 2-CdA. Twenty-four patients were previously diagnosed and 19 were newly diagnosed. Adenopathy was considered bulky if the greatest dimension of any confluent mass was between 5 and 10 cm and massive if greater than 10 cm.
Internal adenopathy was present in six of 43 patients (14%). Three of the six patients had massive abdominal adenopathy and one had bulky abdominal adenopathy. All six patients with adenopathy were previously diagnosed, while none of the 19 newly diagnosed patients had internal adenopathy. In those patients previously diagnosed, the six with adenopathy had a median disease duration of 68 months, while the 18 patients without adenopathy had a median disease duration of 24 months (P = .01). Adenopathy was more common in splenectomized patients. In previously diagnosed patients, adenopathy occurred in five of 10 (50%) splenectomized patients and one of 14 (7%) nonsplenectomized patients (P = .05). However, the 10 splenectomized patients had a median disease duration of 56 months, while the 14 nonsplenectomized patients had a median disease duration of 16 months (P = .004). All six patients had significant reduction in adenopathy 3 months after 2-CdA and were without residual HCL in the bone marrow.
Significant internal adenopathy in patients with HCL is more frequent than previously recognized. Adenopathy is rare at diagnosis and appears to be related to disease duration. As patients treated with 2-CdA have long disease-free survival durations, detection of significant adenopathy by CT scan may be important; however, routine CT scans are not recommended at the time of diagnosis.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/1994; 12(2):268-72. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) yields high complete remission (CR) rates in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) Two approaches were used to detect minimal residual disease. We studied two B-lineage antibodies, L26 and MB2, and a T-lineage antibody, UCHL-1, in fixed marrow core biopsies from 34 patients with HCL before and after 2-CdA to detect minimal residual in the marrow. In addition, the splenic index was calculated before and after treatment to detect residual splenomegaly. Prior to therapy, hairy cells exhibited intense cytoplasmic membrane reactivity with L26 and strong intracytoplasmic reactivity with MB2. UCHL-1 did not react with hairy cells. Thirty-one patients were assessable 3 months after therapy. Five of 24 (21%) patients in CR by routine evaluation had residual HCL detected by immunostaining. Four of these 5 patients have been reevaluated at 1 year. One patient relapsed by routine evaluation, 2 remained positive by immunostaining alone, and 1 patient became negative by immunostaining. A total of 19 patients have been evaluated at 1 year and 17 remain in CR. Three of these 17 were positive by immunostaining, 2 of whom had been positive at 3 months and 1 additional patient who became positive by immunostaining at 1 year. Of 9 patients evaluated at 2 years, an additional 2 of 3 patients with minimal residual disease detected previously by immunostaining at 3 months relapsed by routine morphology and 1 had persistent positive immunostaining. Only 1 patient in remission by morphology and immunostaining has relapsed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) yields high complete remission (CR) rates in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL). In an effort to detect minimal residual disease, we studied two B-lineage antibodies, L26 and MB2, and a T-lineage antibody, UCHL-1, in fixed marrow core biopsies from 34 patients with HCL before and after 2-CdA. Before therapy, hairy cells exhibited intense cytoplasmic membrane reactivity with L26 and strong intracytoplasmic reactivity with MB2. UCHL-1 did not react with hairy cells. Thirty-one patients were assessable 3 months after therapy. Five of 24 (21%) patients in CR by routine evaluation had residual HCL detected by immunostaining. Four of these 5 patients have been reevaluated at 1 year. One patient relapsed by routine evaluation, 2 remained positive by immunostaining alone, and 1 patient became negative by immunostaining. A total of 19 patients have been evaluated at 1 year. Only 1 additional patient has become positive by immunostaining alone. Immunostaining using the B-lineage antibodies highlighted the presence of hairy cells with preservation of morphology. This assisted in quantifying the extent of disease, particularly when hairy cells were interstitial and blended with surrounding hematopoietic tissue, when hairy cells were present in hypocellular marrows, when hairy cells were spindle-shaped, and when marrows were markedly fibrotic. Because immunostaining can be easily performed on routinely processed marrows, it is an attractive method to detect minimal residual disease. Our data suggest that some patients in apparent CR after 2-CdA may have minimal residual disease. Patients will need to be observed prospectively to determine if residual disease will be predictive of relapse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are at high risk for the development of life-threatening thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications, particularly during induction chemotherapy. This propensity has been attributed to the release of tissue factor (TF)-like procoagulants from the leukemic cells leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, recent data suggest that the pathogenesis of the coagulopathy is more complicated and may involve activation of the generalized proteolytic cascade resulting in either clotting and/or excessive fibrinolysis. Furthermore, controversy exists regarding the mechanism(s) responsible for the activation of either clotting or fibrinolysis. The malignant promyelocyte may act directly to activate coagulation and/or fibrinolysis. Alternatively, reactive inflammatory cells, which express procoagulant and/or profibrinolytic activities may play an essential role. A third possibility may involve endothelial cell expression of mediators with procoagulant/profibrinolytic properties. Putative profibrinolytic mechanisms include the release of urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activators, decreases in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and 2, and decreases in alpha-2 plasmin inhibitor. Putative procoagulant mechanisms include the release of tissue factor, Cancer Procoagulant, or cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and vascular permeability factor. Putative anticoagulant mediators include annexins, a group of proteins in human tissue which bind phospholipids and have anticoagulant activity, which have been reported in patients with APL. The current treatment of APL is rapidly evolving because of the efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). All-trans retinoic acid promotes terminal differentiation of leukemic promyelocytes leading to complete remission in the majority of patients with APL with rapid resolution of the coagulopathy. Although the mechanism by which this occurs has not been established, preliminary data suggest that ATRA blocks the downregulation of the thrombomodulin gene and the up-regulation of the tissue factor gene induced by tumor necrosis factor. Since APL is a relatively uncommon disorder, the collaboration of cooperative oncology groups will be important to study patients receiving ATRA or conventional chemotherapy to further elucidate the mechanism(s) of the coagulopathy.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 10/1993; 11(1-2):27-36. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia is presented. During treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid, erythema nodosum developed. Treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid was continued, the erythema nodosum resolved with steroid treatment, and a complete remission was attained. This case is the first report of erythema nodosum associated with all-trans-retinoic acid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rare variant of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is associated with basophilic differentiation. Such a patient presented with basophilia, headaches, and diffuse engorgement of superficial blood vessels, attributable to hyperhistaminemia. Karyotype analysis showed a clonal rearrangement of chromosome 12p13 in addition to the t(15;17). During treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid (TRA), the absolute basophil count rose steadily during the first week, then declined. By one month, the basophilia resolved, an abrupt rise occurred in both the platelet and absolute neutrophil count, and the bone core biopsy showed complete maturation of all cell lines. Abnormalities of chromosome 12p13 in acute myelogenous leukemia have been associated with basophilia. Since every cell in our patient with t(12p13;?) also had the t(15;17), we speculate that the basophilia was due to clonal evolution with acquisition of the t(12p13;?). In two out of five other reported cases, abnormalities of chromosomes known to be associated with basophilia were present in addition to t(15;17). It is possible that the basophilia in this variant is reactive; however, since TRA induces differentiation of leukemic promyelocytes into mature neutrophils, we speculate that the leukemic promyelocytes in our patient differentiated into basophils. Future studies employing either fluorescent in situ hybridization or polymerase chain reaction using a probe to the breakpoint on t(15;17) may establish whether or not the basophils derive from the leukemic clone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the only three cases of granulocytic sarcoma among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) seen at our institution during the last 12 years were each associated with the 8;21 translocation [t(8;21)], we sought to determine if this association is specific and more frequent than previously recognized.
We report three patients with AML and t(8;21) who developed granulocytic sarcomas, and review the world literature.
Between 1980 and 1992, 53 cases of AML French-American-British (FAB) M2 were identified at our institution. Eight (15%) patients had t(8;21). Three of these eight patients (38%) developed granulocytic sarcoma. All three of our patients received conventional intensive antileukemic chemotherapy yet had short relapse-free survival durations. Several series of patients with t(8;21) report that granulocytic sarcomas occur in approximately 18% of this population, which is four times the expected incidence in AML. Thirty-seven cases have been previously reported. Although karyotype analyses were not reported in many cases of granulocytic sarcoma in the literature, the vast majority of abnormal karyotypes in patients with AML involved t(8;21). Recent work with a cell line derived from a patient with t(8;21) indicates that such cells are unusually adherent to culture bottles and are aggregable
Our data suggest that this association is more common than generally recognized and may be specific. Patients with t(8;21) should be observed closely for signs and symptoms of granulocytic sarcoma. These patients may have a less favorable prognosis than other patients with t(8;21). Cooperative oncology groups should retrospectively identify patients with AML and t(8;21) who had a poor outcome to determine if they had a disproportionate incidence of granulocytic sarcoma. If so, aggressive therapy such as bone marrow transplantation may be warranted early in the therapeutic strategy.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/1993; 11(4):690-7. · 17.88 Impact Factor