[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding how glucose metabolism is finely regulated at molecular and cellular levels in the liver is critical for knowing its relationship to related pathologies, such as diabetes. In order to gain insight the regulation of glucose metabolism, we studied the liver expressed isoforms aldolase B and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-1), key enzymes in gluconeogenesis, analyzing their cellular localization in hepatocytes under different metabolic conditions and their protein-protein interaction in vitro and in vivo . We observed that glucose, insulin, glucagon and adrenaline differentially modulate the intracellular distribution of aldolase B and FBPase-1. Interestingly, the in vitro protein-protein interaction analysis between aldolase B and FBPase-1 showed a specific and regulatable interaction between them, whereas aldolase A (muscle isozyme) and FBPase-1 showed no interaction. The affinity of the aldolase B and FBPase-1complex was modulated by intermediate metabolites, but only in the presence of K+. We observed a decreased association constant in the presence of adenosine monophosphate, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, fructose-6-phosphate and inhibitory concentrations of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Conversely, the association constant of the complex increased in the presence of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and non-inhibitory concentrations of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Notably, i n vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies confirmed the interaction between aldolase B and FBPase-1. Also, the co-expression of aldolase B and FBPase-1 in cultured cells suggested that FBPase-1 guides the cellular localization of aldolase B. Our results provide further evidence that metabolic conditions modulate aldolase B and FBPase-1 activity at the cellular level via the regulation of their interaction, suggesting that their association confers a catalytic advantage for both enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The localization of the aldolase B isozyme was determined immunohistochemically in rat kidney and liver using a polyclonal antibody. Aldolase B was preferentially localized in a nuclear region of hepatocytes from the periportal region and was absent in those from the perivenous region. Aldolase B was also preferentially localized in the proximal tubules and was absent in other structures of the renal cortex as well as in the renal medulla. Using reflection confocal microscopy, the enzyme was preferentially localized in a nuclear position in liver and renal cells, which was similar to the cellular and intracellular location found for the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Sáez et al.  J. Cell. Biochem. 63:453-462). Subcellular fractionation studies followed by enzyme activity assays revealed that aldolase activity was associated with subcellular particulate structures. Overall, the data suggest that different aldolase isoenzymes are needed in the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The localization of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (D-Fru-1,6-)2-1-phosphohydrolase, EC 18.104.22.168) in rat kidney and liver was determined immunohistochemically using a polyclonal antibody raised against the enzyme purified from pig kidney. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the bisphosphatase was preferentially localized in hepatocytes of the periportal region of the liver and was absent from the perivenous region. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was also preferentially localized in the cortex of the kidney proximal tubules and was absent in the glomeruli, loops of Henle, collecting and distal tubules, and in the renal medulla. As indicated by immunocytochemistry using light microscopy and confirmed with the use of reflection confocal microscopy, the enzyme was preferentially localized in a perinuclear position in the liver and the renal cells. Subcellular fractionation studies followed by enzyme activity assays revealed that a majority of the cellular fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was associated to subcellular particulate structures. Overall, the data support the concept of metabolic zonation in liver as well as in kidney, and establish the concept that the Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is a particulate enzyme that can not be considered a soluble enzyme in the classical sense.