[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With more than 40 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is an urgent need to develop drugs that can be used in the form of a topical microbicide to prevent infection through sexual transmission. DCM205 is a recently discovered small-molecule inhibitor of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) that is able to directly inactivate HIV-1 in the absence of a cellular target. DCM205 is active against CXCR4-, CCR5-, and dual-tropic laboratory-adapted and primary strains of HIV-1. DCM205 binds to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and competition studies map the DCM205 binding at or near the V3 loop of gp120. Binding to this site interferes with the soluble CD4 interaction. With its ability to disable the virus particle, DCM205 represents a promising new class of HIV entry inhibitor that can be used as a strategy in the prevention of HIV-1/AIDS.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2007; 51(5):1780-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we prepared a small library of chicoric acid analogs that possessed both potent anti-integrase and antiviral activity. It was also shown that active compounds fell into one of two groups: those that inhibited an early stage in viral replication and those that inhibited at a later stage. In this study, a series of vinyl geminal disulfone-containing compounds possessing a range of ring substituents has been synthesized to probe the impact of structure on inhibitory mechanisms. Four active compounds were identified using HIV drug susceptibility assays. Three of the inhibitors possessing either no substituents or electron-withdrawing substituents on the aromatic rings led to high levels of cytotoxicity and antiviral activity. Intrigued by the potential implications of electronic effects on activity, we probed whether the active compounds could be nonspecifically reacting via 1,4-addition. To investigate this hypothesis, the compounds were incubated with glutathione and upon LC/MS analysis, molecular ion peaks corresponding to both mono and double addition adducts were identified. Second, we synthesized analogs lacking the ability to participate in 1,4-addition and tested them for antiviral activity and cytotoxicity, and found the compounds inactive for both activities. Taken together, the studies reported herein suggest that compounds lacking electron-donating substituents on the aromatic ring are promiscuous acceptors of biological nucleophiles, whereas compounds possessing electron-donating substituents seem to resist addition or at least be more selective and significantly less toxic.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vinyl sulfones have long been known for their synthetic utility in organic chemistry, easily participating in 1,4-addition reactions and cycloaddition reactions. This functional group has also recently been shown to potently inhibit a variety of enzymatic processes providing unique properties for drug design and medicinal chemistry. This review includes traditional methods used for the synthesis of vinyl sulfones, but focuses mainly on newer reactions applied to vinyl sulfones, including olefin metathesis, conjugate reduction, asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD), and the use of vinyl sulfones to arrive at highly functionalized targets, all illustrating the rich and versatile chemistry this group can efficiently perform. In addition, geminal disulfones are discussed with respect to their formation, reactions, and medicinal applications of this underutilized functional group.
Medicinal Research Reviews 12/2006; 26(6):793-814. · 9.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection is the leading cause of death worldwide and despite major advances in treatment, more new cases were diagnosed in 2004 than any previous year. Current treatment regimens are based on the use of two or more drugs from two or more classes of inhibitors termed highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Although HAART is capable of suppressing viral loads to undetectable levels, problems of toxicity, patient adherence, and particularly the emergence of drug-resistant viruses continues to spur the development of new chemotherapeutics to combat HIV. Clinical candidates from the four existing classes of inhibitors are presented in this review along with lead compounds against new viral targets, with special emphasis on HIV integrase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integration of HIV-1 viral DNA into the host genome is carried out by HIV-integrase (IN) and is a critical step in viral replication. Although several classes of compounds have been reported to inhibit IN in enzymatic assays, inhibition is not always correlated with antiviral activity. Moreover, potent antiviral IN inhibitors such as the chicoric acids do not act upon the intended enzymatic target but behave as entry inhibitors instead. The charged nature of the chicoric acids contributes to poor cellular uptake, and these compounds are further plagued by rapid ester hydrolysis in vivo. To address these critical deficiencies, we designed neutral, nonhydrolyzable analogues of the chicoric acids. Herein, we report the synthesis, enzyme inhibition studies, and cellular antiviral data for a series of geminal disulfones. Of the 10 compounds evaluated, 8 showed moderate to high inhibition of IN in purified enzyme assays. The purified enzyme data correlated with antiviral assays for all but two compounds, suggesting alternative modes of inhibition. Time-of-addition studies were performed on these analogues, and the results indicate that they inhibit an early stage in the replication process, perhaps entry. In contrast, the most potent member of the correlative group shows behavior consistent with IN being the cellular target.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2005; 48(14):4526-34. · 5.61 Impact Factor