[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) impose a significant economic burden for patients admitted to the intensive care unit for adults (AICU). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the excess length of stay and extra costs attributable to CLABSIs diagnosed in the AICU. Methods: Cases were selected as patients admitted to AICU from 2006 through 2009, who developed a CLABSI episode. These were matched (1:1) with appropriate controls. Matching criteria were selected to exclude other factors that could influence cost and care practices. The length of stay and resources used between AICU admission and discharge and until hospital discharge or death were measured. Incremental costs and lengths of stay were calculated for each pair of patients. Results: Thirty cases and 30 controls were included in the study. A CLABSI episode resulted
Central venous lines are used extensively in intensive care units (ICUs) but may occasionally result in central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). In the United States, about 48,600 CLABSIs occur in ICUs each year . These infections impose a significant economic burden, with additional estimated costs ranging from US $4,000 to US $36,000 per episode [2–4]. Critically ill patients with primary bloodstream infections are hospitalized for an average of 6.5 to 22 days longer than are patients without bloodstream infection [2–4]. Data from Latin America and other developing countries participating in the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium show that CLABSI rates in these countries are three to five times higher than rates in the United States .
Preventing CLABSI may improve patient care while reducing hospital stays, costs, and possibly also mortality. Central venous line bundles are fairly simple to perform with reproducible results. However, the implementation of these interventions requires a considerable investment in resources and manpower. Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE) has implemented pre- ventive measures in two phases, March 2005 to March 2007 phase
in an additional 10.5 days in the AICU and 9.1 days after AICU discharge, totaling an additional 19.6 days. The incremental cost associated with a CLABSI episode was US $65,993 in the AICU and US $23,893 after AICU discharge, totaling an incremental cost of US $89,886. Conclusions: By avoiding CLABSI events, cost offsets would be expected for payers with revenue losses to providers. An approach of sharing the gains resulting from preventive measures could be used to incentivize providers to maintain those invest- ments, benefiting patients who will have a reduced risk of CLABSI development.
Keywords: bloodstream infection, cost, intensive care unit.
Copyright & 2012, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and
Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the introduction of alcohol based products have increased compliance with hand hygiene in intensive care units (ICU), no comparative studies with other products in the same unit and in the same period have been conducted. We performed a two-month-observational prospective study comparing three units in an adult ICU, according to hand hygiene practices (chlorhexidine alone-unit A, both chlorhexidine and alcohol gel-unit B, and alcohol gel alone-unit C, respectively). Opportunities for hand hygiene were considered according to an institutional guideline. Patients were randomly allocated in the 3 units and data on hand hygiene compliance was collected without the knowledge of the health care staff. TISS score (used for measuring patient complexity) was similar between the three different units. Overall compliance with hand hygiene was 46.7% (659/1410). Compliance was significantly higher after patient care in unit A when compared to units B and C. On the other hand, compliance was significantly higher only between units A (32.1%) and C (23.1%) before patient care (p=0.02). Higher compliance rates were observed for general opportunities for hand hygiene (patient bathing, vital sign controls, etc), while very low compliance rates were observed for opportunities related to skin and gastroenteral care. One of the reasons for not using alcohol gel according to health care workers was the necessity for water contact (35.3%, 12/20). Although the use of alcohol based products is now the standard practice for hand hygiene the abrupt abolition of hand hygiene with traditional products may not be recommended for specific services.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 10/2009; 13(5):330-4. DOI:10.1590/S1413-86702009000500003 · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common health care-associated infections (HAIs) in critical care settings.
Our objective was to examine the effect of a series of interventions, implemented in 3 different periods to reduce the incidence of VAP in an intensive care unit (ICU).
A quasiexperimental study was conducted in a medical-surgical ICU. Multiple interventions to optimize VAP prevention were performed during different phases. From March 2001 to December 2002 (phase 1: P1), some Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) evidence-based practices were implemented. From January 2003 to December 2006 (P2), we intervened in these processes at the same time that performance monitoring was occurring at the bedside, and, from January 2007 to September 2008 (P3), we continued P2 interventions and implemented the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's ventilator bundle plus oral decontamination with chlorhexidine and continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions.
The incidence density of VAP in the ICU per 1000 patient-days was 16.4 in phase 1, 15.0 in phase 2, and 10.4 in phase 3, P=.05. Getting to zero VAP was possible only in P3 when compliance with all interventions exceeded 95%.
These results suggest that reducing VAP rates to zero is a complex process that involves multiple performance measures and interventions.
American journal of infection control 07/2009; 37(8):619-25. DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2009.03.009 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using antimicrobial agents for prolonged periods of time and/or in heavy densities is known to contribute to antimicrobial resistance.
A quasiexperimental, before and after study to limit the duration of antimicrobial therapy to 14 days was conducted in a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). An intervention to optimize antimicrobial therapy was performed when antimicrobial agents had been prescribed for more than 14 days. We then compared antimicrobial utilization using the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 patient-days, as well as resistance rates in selected organisms in the intervention phase to the previous 10-month period.
In the intervention phase, doctors approved to discontinue the antimicrobial therapy before 14 days in 89.8% (415/462) of the prescribed antibiotics in the ICU. Comparing the 2 time periods, we found a reduction in carbapenems (24.5% decrease), vancomycin (14.3% decrease), and cephalosporins (12.2% decrease) in the intervention phase. Imipenem resistance decreased in Acinetobacter baumannii from 88.5% to 20.0% (P <or= .001) and in Klebsiella pneumoniae from 54.5% to 10.7% (P = .01).
These results suggest that an intervention to reduce the duration of antimicrobial therapy contributed to more rational use of antimicrobial agents and to the reduction of bacterial resistance in the critical care setting.
American journal of infection control 12/2008; 37(3):204-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2008.06.008 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 adult step-down units (SDUs).
A 6-month (from March to September 2007), controlled trial comparing 2 SDUs, one with a feedback intervention program (ie, the intervention unit) and one without (ie, the control unit).
Two 20-bed SDUs at a tertiary care private hospital.
Hand hygiene episodes were measured by electronic recording devices and periodic observational surveys. In the intervention unit, feedback was provided by the SDU nurse manager, who explained twice a week to the healthcare workers the goals and targets for the process measures.
A total of 117,579 hand hygiene episodes were recorded in the intervention unit, and a total of 110,718 were recorded in the control unit (P = .63). There was no significant difference in the amount of chlorhexidine used in the intervention and control units (34.0 vs 26.7 L per 1,000 patient-days; P = .36) or the amount of alcohol gel used (72.5 vs 70.7 L per 1,000 patient-days; P = .93). However, in both units, healthcare workers used alcohol gel more frequently than chlorhexidine (143.2 vs 60.7 L per 1,000 patient-days; P < .001). Nosocomial infection rates in the intervention and control units, respectively, were as follows: for bloodstream infection, 3.5 and 0.79 infections per 1,000 catheter-days (P = .18); for urinary tract infection, 15.8 and 15.7 infections per 1,000 catheter-days (P = .99); and for tracheostomy-associated pneumonia, 10.7 and 5.1 infections per 1,000 device-days (P = .13). There were no cases of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci and only a single case of infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (in the control unit).
The feedback intervention regarding hand hygiene had no significant effect on the rate of compliance. Other measures must be used to increase and sustain the rate of hand hygiene compliance.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 08/2008; 29(8):730-5. DOI:10.1086/590122 · 3.94 Impact Factor