C Lund

Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (44)161.74 Total impact

  • Kenneth Jensen, Henrik Kehlet, Claus M Lund
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the applicability, effectiveness, immediate postoperative complaints and requirements for a postanaesthesia care unit stay after elective abdominal hysterectomy under a well defined, multimodal anaesthetic regime. Observational study of 145 consecutive patients scheduled for the procedure at a major university hospital in Denmark. Perioperative treatments and postoperative complaints were recorded continuously until discharge from the postanaesthesia care unit. Main outcome measures were treatment regimen adherence, pain, nausea and vomiting, respiratory insufficiency and time of discharge readiness. The structured regime consisting of total intravenous anaesthesia (propofol-remifentanil), well defined fluid administration, prophylactic antiemetics (dexamethasone, ondansetron, droperidol), weak analgesics (celecoxib, paracetamol) and intraoperative epidural analgesia (bupivacaine, morphine) was feasible in more than 90% of all patients. In the postanaesthesia care unit, 64% did not require opioids, but 25% experienced severe pain. Mean length of stay was 2 h with a mean discharge readiness of 80 min. Half the patients required supplemental oxygen for 1 h or more to sustain an SpO2 greater than 92%, and 8% experienced nausea or vomiting. A complicated recovery, defined as the presence of severe complaints (pain, nausea or vomiting), with more than five treatment interventions in the postanaesthesia care unit, or a length of stay more than 2 h, was seen in 52%. We conclude that a structured multimodal anaesthetic regime is feasible in daily clinical practice and advantageous, and that postoperative pain and oxygen requirements (to sustain an SpO2 >92%) are the major determinants for length of stay in the postanaesthesia care unit. Further research should focus on nonopioid analgesic systemic adjuvants to improve early recovery and reduce stay in the postanaesthesia care unit.
    European Journal of Anaesthesiology 03/2009; 26(5):382-8. DOI:10.1097/EJA.0b013e32831f3429 · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Ugeskrift for laeger 10/2008; 170(40):3157; author reply 3158.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of medical emergency teams (MET) is to identify and treat deteriorating patients on general wards, and to avoid cardiac arrest, unplanned intensive care unit admission and death. The effectiveness of METs has yet to be proven, as the only two randomised, controlled trials on the subject show conflicting results. Despite the lack of evidence, METs are gaining popularity and are being implemented in Danish hospitals as part of Operation Life.
    Ugeskrift for laeger 09/2008; 170(35):2661-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence-based guidelines on optimal perioperative fluid management have not been established, and recent randomized trials in major abdominal surgery suggest that large amounts of fluid may increase morbidity and hospital stay. However, no information is available on detailed functional outcomes or with fast-track surgery. Therefore, we investigated the effects of two regimens of intraoperative fluids with physiological recovery as the primary outcome measure after fast-track colonic surgery. In a double-blind study, 32 ASA I-III patients undergoing elective colonic surgery were randomized to 'restrictive' (Group 1) or 'liberal' (Group 2) perioperative fluid administration. Fluid algorithms were based on fixed rates of crystalloid infusions and a standardized volume of colloid. Pulmonary function (spirometry) was the primary outcome measure, with secondary outcomes of exercise capacity (submaximal exercise test), orthostatic tolerance, cardiovascular hormonal responses, postoperative ileus (transit of radio-opaque markers), postoperative nocturnal hypoxaemia, and overall recovery within a well-defined multimodal, fast-track recovery programme. Hospital stay and complications were also noted. 'Restrictive' (median 1640 ml, range 935-2250 ml) compared with 'liberal' fluid administration (median 5050 ml, range 3563-8050 ml) led to significant improvement in pulmonary function and postoperative hypoxaemia. In contrast, we found significantly reduced concentrations of cardiovascularly active hormones (renin, aldosterone, and angiotensin II) in Group 2. The number of patients with complications was not significantly different between the groups [1 ('liberal' group) [corrected] vs 6 ('restrictive' group) [corrected] patients, P = 0.08]. A 'restrictive' [corrected] fluid regimen led to a transient improvement in pulmonary function and postoperative hypoxaemia but no other differences in all-over physiological recovery compared with a 'liberal' [corrected] fluid regimen after fast-track colonic surgery. Since morbidity tended to be increased with the 'restrictive' fluid regimen, future studies should focus on the effect of individualized 'goal-directed' fluid administration strategies rather than fixed fluid amounts on postoperative outcome.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2007; 99(4):500-8. DOI:10.1093/bja/aem211 · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • K. Jensen, H. Kehlet, C. M. Lund
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 10/2007; 51(9). DOI:10.1111/j.1399-6576.2007.01449.x · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    K Jensen, H Kehlet, C M Lund
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now often an ambulatory procedure, but dependent on short-term post-operative complaints of pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The efficacy of post-anaesthesia care units (PACUs) is therefore important to facilitate return to normal functions. We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of a standardized, evidence-based anaesthesia/analgesic regime to identify residual problems in the early post-operative phase. One hundred and thirty-four consecutive patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Hvidovre University Hospital between 15 March and 30 September 2005 were included in the study. The standardized, evidence-based regime consisted of total intravenous (i.v.) anaesthesia (propofol-remifentanil), well-defined fluid therapy, dexamethasone, ketorolac, ondansetron, sufentanil and incisional bupivacaine intra-operatively, and in the PACU on demand (prn) administration of sufentanil, morphine, paracetamol, ondansetron, droperidol, oral fluids and oxygen (if SpO(2) < 93%) with PACU discharge using a modified Aldrete score. Protocol violations were moderate and occurred unsystematically, 8% had medical violations and 10% did not receive the pre-planned fluid amount. Severe PONV was seen in 2%. Thirteen per cent experienced severe pain, and the presence of any pain and/or PONV were predictors of an extended PACU stay. Mean oxygen demand was 46 min (range, 0-300 min), which influenced time to discharge (mean, 88 min). There were on average 2.7 treatment interventions (range, 0-11) before discharge. An evidence-based, multimodal approach to the anaesthetic/analgesic management in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible and advantageous in the early post-operative phase. Pain and PONV are predictors of a complicated recovery profile and deserve further attention. Transient oxygen desaturations postpone discharge from the PACU, but the clinical significance of this fact is questionable.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 05/2007; 51(4):464-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01251.x · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By careful selection of both patients and surgeon, outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed in up to 90% of elective patients. The rate of same-day discharge in an unselected group scheduled for elective operation is, however, not clarified. A clinical pathway for outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced as the standard procedure for all patients undergoing elective operation. The set-up allowed easy access to an overnight stay if needed. Hospital stay, complications, reasons for admittance, the need for medical advice after discharge, convalescence and patients" satisfaction were analysed. Prospective registrations were undertaken in a standard care plan, and a questionnaire was sent out after four weeks. During two years of the study, 535 patients had a cholecystectomy done. Of these, 403 were scheduled for elective laparoscopic operation and entered the clinical pathway. In 62% of the patients, the outpatient course was successfully completed, and 94% of the patients were discharged within 24 hours. In 2%, complications resulted in hospital stays longer than three days, and 2.7% of the operations were converted. About one third of the patients needed additional medical advice after discharge, and 4.3% of these were readmitted. Pain was among the most frequent complaints. The patients" satisfaction with the procedure was approximately 90%. In an unselected group of patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, about two thirds can be treated as outpatients with a high degree of safety and patients" satisfaction. Further development, especially in the multimodal treatment of pain, is still the most important area to focus on in order to reduce postoperative complaints and improve the course of convalescence.
    Ugeskrift for laeger 07/2005; 167(24):2644-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred and ten consecutive patients scheduled for elective open colonic resection under general anaesthesia with combined thoracic epidural analgesia were prospectively studied. Postoperative epidural analgesia was maintained for 48 h with bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml and morphine 50 μg/ml, 4 ml/h. Postoperative pain scores were assessed during cough on a categorical scale (0: no pain, 1: slight pain, 2: moderate pain, 3: severe pain) 24 and 48 h after surgery. Sum of pain scores (24 + 48 h assessments) was compared with time to first postoperative defaecation and LOS. Data from 19 patients were excluded because of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3–6) versus low (0–2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery of gastrointestinal function and sufficient analgesia allowing discharge within 2–3 days in most patients after colonic resection.
    Acute Pain 05/2005; 7(1):5-11. DOI:10.1016/j.acpain.2005.01.001
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic colonic surgery has been claimed to hasten recovery and reduce hospital stay compared with open operation. Recently, enforced multimodal rehabilitation (fast-track surgery) has improved recovery and reduced hospital stay in both laparoscopic and open colonic surgery. Since no comparative data between laparoscopic and open colonic resection with multimodal rehabilitation are available, the value of laparoscopy per se is unknown. In a randomized, observer-and-patient, blinded trial, 60 patients (median age 75 years) underwent elective laparoscopic or open colonic resection with fast-track rehabilitation and planned discharge after 48 hours. Functional recovery was assessed in detail during the first postoperative month. Median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days in both groups, with early and similar recovery to normal activities as assessed by hours of mobilization per day, computerized monitoring of motor activity assessed, pulmonary function, cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise, pain, sleep quality, fatigue, and return to normal gastrointestinal function. There were no significant differences in postoperative morbidity, mortality, or readmissions, although 3 patients died in the open versus nil in the laparoscopic group. Functional recovery after colonic resection is rapid with a multimodal rehabilitation regimen and without differences between open and laparoscopic operation. Further large-scale studies are required on potential differences in serious morbidity and mortality.
    Annals of Surgery 04/2005; 241(3):416-23. DOI:10.1097/01.sla.0000154149.85506.36 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic colonic surgery has been claimed to hasten recovery and reduce hospital stay compared with open operation. Recently, enforced multimodal rehabilitation (fast-track surgery) has improved recovery and reduced hospital stay in both laparoscopic and open colonic surgery. Since no comparative data between laparoscopic and open colonic resection with multimodal rehabilitation are available, the value of laparoscopy per se is unknown. METHODS: In a randomized, observer-and-patient, blinded trial, 60 patients (median age 75 years) underwent elective laparoscopic or open colonic resection with fast-track rehabilitation and planned discharge after 48 hours. Functional recovery was assessed in detail during the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days in both groups, with early and similar recovery to normal activities as assessed by hours of mobilization per day, computerized monitoring of motor activity assessed, pulmonary function, cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise, pain, sleep quality, fatigue, and return to normal gastrointestinal function. There were no significant differences in postoperative morbidity, mortality, or readmissions, although 3 patients died in the open versus nil in the laparoscopic group. CONCLUSION: Functional recovery after colonic resection is rapid with a multimodal rehabilitation regimen and without differences between open and laparoscopic operation. Further large-scale studies are required on potential differences in serious morbidity and mortality.
    Annals of surgery 03/2005; 241(3):416-23. DOI:10.1016/S0739-5930(08)70416-1 · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • Ugeskrift for laeger 12/2004; 166(47):4253-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 levels of intraoperative fluid administration on perioperative physiology and outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intraoperative fluid administration is variable as a result of limited knowledge of physiological and clinical effects of different fluid substitution regimens. In a double-blind study, 48 ASA I-II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to 15 mL/kg (group 1) or 40 mL/kg (group 2) intraoperative administration of lactated Ringer's solution (LR). All other aspects of perioperative management as well as preoperative fluid status were standardized. Primary outcome parameters were assessed repeatedly for the first 24 postoperative hours and included pulmonary function (spirometry), exercise capacity (submaximal treadmill test), cardiovascular hormonal responses, balance function, pain, nausea and vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay. Intraoperative administration of 40 mL/kg compared with 15 mL/kg LR led to significant improvements in postoperative pulmonary function and exercise capacity and a reduced stress response (aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and angiotensin II). Nausea, general well-being, thirst, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, and balance function were also significantly improved, as well as significantly more patients fulfilled discharge criteria and were discharged on the day of surgery with the high-volume fluid substitution. Intraoperative administration of 40 mL/kg compared with 15 mL/kg LR improves postoperative organ functions and recovery and shortens hospital stay after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
    Annals of Surgery 12/2004; 240(5):892-9. DOI:10.1097/01.sla.0000143269.96649.3b · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • Lisbet Isenberg Ravn, Claus M Lund
    Ugeskrift for laeger 06/2004; 166(21):2014-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when hypotension is present, which may have implications for the choice of treatment of hypotension. However, no long-term information or measurements of plasma volumes with or without hypotension after epidural anesthesia are available. In 12 healthy volunteers, the authors assessed plasma (125I-albumin) and erythrocyte (51Cr-EDTA) volumes before and 90 min after administration of 10 ml bupivacaine, 0.5%, via a thoracic epidural catheter (T7-T10). After 90 min (t = 90), subjects were randomized to administration of fluid (7 ml/kg hydroxyethyl starch) or a vasopressor (0.2 mg/kg ephedrine), and 40 min later (t = 130), plasma and erythrocyte volumes were measured. At the same time points, mean corpuscular volume and hematocrit were measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and hemoglobin were measured every 5 min throughout the study. Volume kinetic analysis was performed for the volunteers receiving hydroxyethyl starch. Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors despite that both treatments had similar hemodynamic effects. Hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly altered by the epidural blockade or ephedrine administration but decreased significantly after hydroxyethyl starch administration. Volume kinetic analysis showed that the infused fluid expanded a rather small volume, approximately 1.5 l. The elimination constant was 56 ml/min. Thoracic epidural anesthesia per se does not lead to changes in blood volumes despite a reduction in blood pressure. When fluid is infused, there is a dilution, and the fluid initially seems to be located centrally. Because administration of hydroxyethyl starch and ephedrine has similar hemodynamic effects, the latter may be preferred in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases in which perioperative fluid overload is undesirable.
    Anesthesiology 03/2004; 100(2):281-6. · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when hypotension is present, which may have implications for the choice of treatment of hypotension. However, no long-term information or measurements of plasma volumes with or without hypotension after epidural anesthesia are available.
    Anesthesiology 01/2004; 100(2):281-286. DOI:10.1097/00000542-200402000-00016 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the widespread use of paracetamol for many years, the analgesic serum concentrations of paracetamol are unknown. Therefore the correlation between serum paracetamol concentrations and the analgesic effect was studied. Sixty-four women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Patients were given i.v. propacetamol 40 mg kg(-1) (group H), 20 mg kg(-1) (group I), 10 mg kg(-1) (group L) or placebo after surgery. Alfentanil was available via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) during the 4-h postoperative study period. The patients' self-reported pain was registered on the visual analog scale (VAS). A pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the paracetamol data. One to 3 h after injection of propacetamol the alfentanil consumption was significantly (P = 0.01-0.04) higher in the placebo group compared with groups H, I, and L receiving propacetamol. There were no significant differences between the amounts of alfentanil consumed in groups H, I, and L. Initial VAS-scores were moderate (5.4-6.2), and declined significantly (P < 0.0001) over time, with no difference between groups. Paracetamol followed an open two-compartment model with i.v. administration and first order elimination. The estimated concentrations immediately (t = 0) after injection were 56 mg l(-1) (H), 28 mg l(-1) (I) and 14 mg l(-1) (L). We showed a significant opioid-sparing effect of paracetamol in the immediate postoperative period. Pharmacokinetic data were in accordance with other studies. Our results suggest that a ceiling effect of paracetamol may be present at i.v. doses of 5 mg kg(-1), i.e. a serum concentration of 14 mg l(-1), which is a lower dose than previously suggested.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 02/2003; 47(2):138-45. DOI:10.1034/j.1399-6576.2003.00046.x · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Claus Lund
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    ABSTRACT: It is of great importance that anaesthetic regimens match surgical procedures in regard to surgical time, in reducing organ dysfunction elicited by the anaesthesia and surgical trauma and by providing optimal post-operative pain treatment, leaving the possibility of early mobilization. New, rapidly eliminated anaesthetic drugs are, by virtue of their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles, optimal for use; combined with continuous thoracic epidurals with local anaesthetics and low-dose opioids, these drugs may permit reduction of various post-operative complications. Minimally invasive surgical techniques (e.g. laparoscopy) lead to serious anaesthesiological considerations concerning changes in haemodynamic and pulmonary parameters and intra-abdominal blood flow changes caused by increased intra-abdominal pressures. Few studies have evaluated whether these changes affect surgical outcome and whether or not different anaesthetic regimens influence relevant morbidity parameters. In future documentation it is important that controlled, well-designed clinical studies evaluate how the advantages from multimodal anaesthetic techniques improve relevant surgical outcome.
    Baillière&#x27 s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Anaesthesiology 04/2002; 16(1):21-33. DOI:10.1053/bean.2002.0205
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify factors limiting early discharge after laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) and abdominal hysterectomy, in a fast track setting with emphasis on information, treatment of pain, early mobilization, and early food intake. Study Design: A prospective, descriptive study of 32 unselected women allocated to either abdominal hysterectomy (n=16) or LAVH (n=16). The patients received the same information, care, and advice for the perioperative period except for an assumed 1-day hospital stay in the LAVH-group and 2 days in the abdominal group. Results: Patients were discharged median 1 day (1–3) after LAVH and 2 days (2–4) after abdominal hysterectomy. Work was resumed median 23 days after abdominal hysterectomy and 28 days after LAVH (P>0.05). Conclusions: The study questions the previously proposed advantages of shortened hospitalization and convalescence after LAVH compared with abdominal hysterectomy. Further studies with active rehabilitation are needed to demonstrate real differences between laparoscopic and open hysterectomy.
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 10/2001; 98(1-98):18-22. DOI:10.1016/S0301-2115(01)00342-6 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate postural stability in patients after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, to see if the anaesthetics and analgesics used influenced it and therefore hindered early discharge. Open study. Teaching hospital, Denmark. 55 patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique with polypropylene mesh repair (Prolene). Measurement of postural stability before operation and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards using the "Basic Balance Master" system, and balance assessed by visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale. Postural stability and subjectively assessed balance. Dynamic postural stability was impaired 30 min (p < 0.05), but not 60 minutes postoperatively. All but two patients were discharged shortly after the measurement at 60 minutes, because of pain in one and an attack of asthma in the other. Balance also returned to normal within an hour. Objectively measured postural stability and subjectively assessed balance return to normal within 60 minutes after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, thereby permitting early discharge.
    The European Journal of Surgery 07/2001; 167(6):449-52. DOI:10.1080/110241501750243806
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    ABSTRACT: The stay in hospital after colonic resection is usually 7-12 days, with a complication rate of 20%. A multi-modal rehabilitation regimen, comprising epidural analgesia, early mobilisation, and oral nutrition, reduced the hospital stay to 2-3 days after colonic resection. One hundred patients underwent elective colonic resection with a planned postoperative stay of two days in hospital and a regimen with epidural analgesia, oral nutrition, and mobilisation. Anaesthesia, the surgical technique, and nursing care programme were standardised. Postoperative follow-up visits were arranged for day 8 and day 30. The median age was 73 years. Forty patients were at high risk, ASA III-IV. Gastrointestinal function (defecation) occurred within 48 hours, except for five patients, and the median hospital stay was two days. The readmission rate was 18% with no acute, potentially lethal conditions. The total hospital stay was three days. None of the patients had cardiopulmonary complications, except for one patient, who died from cardiac failure 36 hours after surgery. Three patients had anastomotic dehiscence, two of whom were treated conservatively. The usual postoperative ileus, "medical complications", and hospital stay were reduced in high-risk patients undergoing colonic resection with a multi-modal rehabilitation programme. These results call for further comparative studies with conventional care programmes and laparoscopic colonic resection.
    Ugeskrift for laeger 03/2001; 163(7):913-7.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
161.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–2009
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2004
    • Texas A&M University - Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
  • 1992
    • Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1987
    • Glostrup Hospital
      Glostrup, Capital Region, Denmark