[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence-based guidelines on optimal perioperative fluid management have not been established, and recent randomized trials in major abdominal surgery suggest that large amounts of fluid may increase morbidity and hospital stay. However, no information is available on detailed functional outcomes or with fast-track surgery. Therefore, we investigated the effects of two regimens of intraoperative fluids with physiological recovery as the primary outcome measure after fast-track colonic surgery.
In a double-blind study, 32 ASA I-III patients undergoing elective colonic surgery were randomized to 'restrictive' (Group 1) or 'liberal' (Group 2) perioperative fluid administration. Fluid algorithms were based on fixed rates of crystalloid infusions and a standardized volume of colloid. Pulmonary function (spirometry) was the primary outcome measure, with secondary outcomes of exercise capacity (submaximal exercise test), orthostatic tolerance, cardiovascular hormonal responses, postoperative ileus (transit of radio-opaque markers), postoperative nocturnal hypoxaemia, and overall recovery within a well-defined multimodal, fast-track recovery programme. Hospital stay and complications were also noted.
'Restrictive' (median 1640 ml, range 935-2250 ml) compared with 'liberal' fluid administration (median 5050 ml, range 3563-8050 ml) led to significant improvement in pulmonary function and postoperative hypoxaemia. In contrast, we found significantly reduced concentrations of cardiovascularly active hormones (renin, aldosterone, and angiotensin II) in Group 2. The number of patients with complications was not significantly different between the groups [1 ('liberal' group) [corrected] vs 6 ('restrictive' group) [corrected] patients, P = 0.08].
A 'restrictive' [corrected] fluid regimen led to a transient improvement in pulmonary function and postoperative hypoxaemia but no other differences in all-over physiological recovery compared with a 'liberal' [corrected] fluid regimen after fast-track colonic surgery. Since morbidity tended to be increased with the 'restrictive' fluid regimen, future studies should focus on the effect of individualized 'goal-directed' fluid administration strategies rather than fixed fluid amounts on postoperative outcome.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2007; 99(4):500-8. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now often an ambulatory procedure, but dependent on short-term post-operative complaints of pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The efficacy of post-anaesthesia care units (PACUs) is therefore important to facilitate return to normal functions. We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of a standardized, evidence-based anaesthesia/analgesic regime to identify residual problems in the early post-operative phase.
One hundred and thirty-four consecutive patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Hvidovre University Hospital between 15 March and 30 September 2005 were included in the study. The standardized, evidence-based regime consisted of total intravenous (i.v.) anaesthesia (propofol-remifentanil), well-defined fluid therapy, dexamethasone, ketorolac, ondansetron, sufentanil and incisional bupivacaine intra-operatively, and in the PACU on demand (prn) administration of sufentanil, morphine, paracetamol, ondansetron, droperidol, oral fluids and oxygen (if SpO(2) < 93%) with PACU discharge using a modified Aldrete score.
Protocol violations were moderate and occurred unsystematically, 8% had medical violations and 10% did not receive the pre-planned fluid amount. Severe PONV was seen in 2%. Thirteen per cent experienced severe pain, and the presence of any pain and/or PONV were predictors of an extended PACU stay. Mean oxygen demand was 46 min (range, 0-300 min), which influenced time to discharge (mean, 88 min). There were on average 2.7 treatment interventions (range, 0-11) before discharge.
An evidence-based, multimodal approach to the anaesthetic/analgesic management in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible and advantageous in the early post-operative phase. Pain and PONV are predictors of a complicated recovery profile and deserve further attention. Transient oxygen desaturations postpone discharge from the PACU, but the clinical significance of this fact is questionable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred and ten consecutive patients scheduled for elective open colonic resection under general anaesthesia with combined thoracic epidural analgesia were prospectively studied. Postoperative epidural analgesia was maintained for 48 h with bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml and morphine 50 μg/ml, 4 ml/h. Postoperative pain scores were assessed during cough on a categorical scale (0: no pain, 1: slight pain, 2: moderate pain, 3: severe pain) 24 and 48 h after surgery. Sum of pain scores (24 + 48 h assessments) was compared with time to first postoperative defaecation and LOS. Data from 19 patients were excluded because of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3–6) versus low (0–2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery of gastrointestinal function and sufficient analgesia allowing discharge within 2–3 days in most patients after colonic resection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the widespread use of paracetamol for many years, the analgesic serum concentrations of paracetamol are unknown. Therefore the correlation between serum paracetamol concentrations and the analgesic effect was studied.
Sixty-four women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Patients were given i.v. propacetamol 40 mg kg(-1) (group H), 20 mg kg(-1) (group I), 10 mg kg(-1) (group L) or placebo after surgery. Alfentanil was available via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) during the 4-h postoperative study period. The patients' self-reported pain was registered on the visual analog scale (VAS). A pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the paracetamol data.
One to 3 h after injection of propacetamol the alfentanil consumption was significantly (P = 0.01-0.04) higher in the placebo group compared with groups H, I, and L receiving propacetamol. There were no significant differences between the amounts of alfentanil consumed in groups H, I, and L. Initial VAS-scores were moderate (5.4-6.2), and declined significantly (P < 0.0001) over time, with no difference between groups. Paracetamol followed an open two-compartment model with i.v. administration and first order elimination. The estimated concentrations immediately (t = 0) after injection were 56 mg l(-1) (H), 28 mg l(-1) (I) and 14 mg l(-1) (L).
We showed a significant opioid-sparing effect of paracetamol in the immediate postoperative period. Pharmacokinetic data were in accordance with other studies. Our results suggest that a ceiling effect of paracetamol may be present at i.v. doses of 5 mg kg(-1), i.e. a serum concentration of 14 mg l(-1), which is a lower dose than previously suggested.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate postural stability in patients after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, to see if the anaesthetics and analgesics used influenced it and therefore hindered early discharge.
Teaching hospital, Denmark.
55 patients listed for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy.
Preoperative and intraoperative infiltration anaesthesia by bupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml (median dose 41 ml, range 30-84 ml), and sedation with midazolam intraoperatively (median dose 3 mg, range 0-10 mg). Lichtenstein tension-free technique with polypropylene mesh repair (Prolene). Measurement of postural stability before operation and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards using the "Basic Balance Master" system, and balance assessed by visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale.
Postural stability and subjectively assessed balance.
Dynamic postural stability was impaired 30 min (p < 0.05), but not 60 minutes postoperatively. All but two patients were discharged shortly after the measurement at 60 minutes, because of pain in one and an attack of asthma in the other. Balance also returned to normal within an hour.
Objectively measured postural stability and subjectively assessed balance return to normal within 60 minutes after inguinal herniorrhaphy under local infiltration anaesthesia, thereby permitting early discharge.
The European Journal of Surgery 07/2001; 167(6):449-52.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stay in hospital after colonic resection is usually 7-12 days, with a complication rate of 20%. A multi-modal rehabilitation regimen, comprising epidural analgesia, early mobilisation, and oral nutrition, reduced the hospital stay to 2-3 days after colonic resection.
One hundred patients underwent elective colonic resection with a planned postoperative stay of two days in hospital and a regimen with epidural analgesia, oral nutrition, and mobilisation. Anaesthesia, the surgical technique, and nursing care programme were standardised. Postoperative follow-up visits were arranged for day 8 and day 30.
The median age was 73 years. Forty patients were at high risk, ASA III-IV. Gastrointestinal function (defecation) occurred within 48 hours, except for five patients, and the median hospital stay was two days. The readmission rate was 18% with no acute, potentially lethal conditions. The total hospital stay was three days. None of the patients had cardiopulmonary complications, except for one patient, who died from cardiac failure 36 hours after surgery. Three patients had anastomotic dehiscence, two of whom were treated conservatively.
The usual postoperative ileus, "medical complications", and hospital stay were reduced in high-risk patients undergoing colonic resection with a multi-modal rehabilitation programme. These results call for further comparative studies with conventional care programmes and laparoscopic colonic resection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of the study was to examine the absorption of acetaminophen by measuring serum and saliva concentrations produced by a standard postoperative acetaminophen dosing regimen and secondary to examine the correlation between saliva and serum concentrations of acetaminophen after rectal and oral dosing.
Twenty-four women, aged 18-60 years, scheduled for minor gynaecological laparoscopic surgery were studied. Patients received acetaminophen 2000 mg suppositories after surgery and oral doses of 1000 mg at 4 and 8 h postoperatively. Alfentanil was available via patient-controlled analgesia. Saliva and blood samples were collected postoperatively.
At 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after rectal dosing the saliva concentrations (mean+/-SD) were 15.2+/-5.9 micromol/l, 33.7+/-12.5 micromol/l, 45.5+/-19.1 micromol/l, and 55.4+/-23.1 micromol/l, respectively. The serum concentrations at 2 and 4 h were 31.0+/-11.2 micromol/l and 54.8+/-23.8 micromol/l, respectively. Additional oral dosing resulted in saliva concentrations at 5, 8, and 9 h of 99.7+/-49.5 micromol/l, 106.9+/-31.7 micromol/l, and 139.3+/-55.4 micromol/l, respectively, with coincident serum concentrations of 100.1 +/- 50.2 micromol/l, 105.6+/-29.0 micromol/l, and 141.2+/-52.1 micromol/l. After rectal dosing the linear regression resulted in r2=0.96, P<0.001 and saliva/ serum-ratio=0.99. After additional oral dosing the outcome of linear regression was: r2=0.90, P<0.001 and saliva/serum-ratio= 1.00.
The slow and ongoing absorption process resulting in no maximum concentration within 4 h after administration of 2000 mg acetaminophen suppositories makes this rectal regimen therapeutically irrational for treatment of postoperative pain. The significant ratio and linear correlation between saliva and serum concentrations of acetaminophen suggests that saliva could be used instead of blood to monitor acetaminophen administration in patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assessed the value of adding rectal piroxicam to a low-dose epidural regimen for postoperative pain relief. Forty-four patients scheduled for major upper abdominal surgery during combined thoracic epidural (bupivacaine + morphine) and general anesthesia were studied. Postoperative analgesia was achieved by using epidural bupivacaine (10 mg/h) plus morphine (0.2 mg/h) for 72 h. In addition, the patients randomly received a placebo or rectal piroxicam (40 mg 12 h before surgery, 20 mg with premedication, and 20 mg every 24 h for 72 h). Pain was evaluated every 4 h at rest, during coughing on demand, and during mobilization. The sensory level of analgesia was evaluated by pinprick. We found no significant difference between piroxicam and placebo with regard to postoperative pain scores or need for supplementary analgesics. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate enhanced analgesia by adding piroxicam to an otherwise very effective low-dose epidural bupivacaine and morphine treatment after upper abdominal surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive research during recent years concerning treatment of postoperative pain has demonstrated that the majority of operation patients can be rendered free from pain but that this is far from being the case in clinical practice. This article reviews the physiological mechanisms of acute pain and the methods available for treatment of pain related to acute physiology of pain. Postoperative treatment of pain should be aggressive with the object of preventing pain and normalizing the vital functions with the object of reducing the perioperative morbidity and mortality. A series of recommendations are given for treatment of pain after surgical intervention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied the effect of surgical injury on cutaneous sensitivity and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to dermatomal electrical stimulation in 10 patients undergoing hysterectomy. Forty-eight hours after surgery, sensory threshold increased from 2.2 (SEM 0.3) mA to 4.4 (1.1) mA (P less than 0.01) and SSEP amplitudes in P1, N1, P2 and the peak-to-peak amplitudes decreased (P less than 0.05). Latency was prolonged only in the N3 component (P less than 0.05). No changes were seen in threshold and SSEP in a control group studied over the same interval. The results suggest that surgical injury activates antinociceptive modulatory systems.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 09/1990; 65(2):173-6. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the effects of extradural clonidine 150 micrograms or morphine 4 mg on postoperative pain, stress responses, cardiopulmonary function and motor and sensory block in a double-blind, randomized study in 20 patients undergoing hysterectomy with general anaesthesia. Observations were made for 6 h after each patient's first request for analgesia. Clonidine provided greater pain relief than morphine only for the first 2 h of observation (P less than 0.001). Plasma cortisol concentrations decreased to a greater extent (P less than 0.05) with morphine, while plasma glucose concentration increased by a similar extent in both groups. After clonidine, mean arterial pressure decreased from 100 (SEM 3) mm Hg to 70 (3) mm Hg (P less than 0.05), but there was no change after morphine. There were no significant changes in heart rate, pulmonary function (FEV1), motor function or sensory analgesia to touch, temperature and pinprick in both groups. Additional systemic opioids were required by five and six patients in the clonidine and morphine groups, respectively.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 12/1989; 63(5):516-9. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of lumbar epidural clonidine 150 micrograms on early (less than 0.5 s) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) to electrical stimulation of the L1 and S1 dermatomes was examined in twelve cancer patients. Epidural clonidine led to a minor but significant decrease in amplitude of two components (N1 and N3) following S1 stimulation while SEP latency was prolonged only in the P1 and P3 components (P less than 0.05). In all patients the pain score decreased, mean score at rest from 4.9 +/- 0.5 to 0.6 +/- 0.2 and during mobilization from 7.4 +/- 0.6 to 1.3 +/- 0.5 (P less than 0.01). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased from 118 +/- 4/72 +/- 5 mmHg to 99 +/- 5/60 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than 0.01), respectively. It is concluded that epidural clonidine has a minor effect on the early SEPs to electrical dermatomal stimulation. Additionally, a pronounced effect on cancer pain was seen.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 06/1989; 6(3):207-13. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-two patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery were entered into a randomized, double-blind study to receive extradural (T7-T8) 0.5% bupivacaine 9 ml followed by 25 mg h-1 with or without additional extradural morphine (bolus 4 mg plus 0.5 mg h-1), for 16 h after operation. Addition of morphine was associated with total alleviation of pain, and a stable level of sensory analgesia, but not with changes in blood glucose and cortisol concentrations or postoperative impairment of lung function (PEFR, FEV1, FVC). Two patients were withdrawn because of hypotension or respiratory depression.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/1989; 62(3):253-7. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether regression of sensory analgesia during constant epidural bupivacaine infusion was different in postoperative patients with acute pain than in patients with chronic nonsurgical pain. Sensory levels of analgesia (to pinprick) and pain (on a five-point scale) were assessed hourly for 16 hours during continuous epidural infusion of 0.5% plain bupivacaine (8 ml/hr) in 12 patients with chronic nonsurgical pain and in 30 patients after major abdominal surgery performed under combined bupivacaine and halothane--N2O general anesthesia. No opiates were given. If sensory analgesia decreased more than five segments from the initial level or if the pain score reached 2 (moderate pain), the patient was removed from the study. Initial levels of sensory analgesia after loading doses of 21.8 +/- 0.5 and 19.3 +/- 0.8 ml bupivacaine 0.5% were similar (T3.8 +/- 0.3 and T3.8 +/- 0.5) in the surgical and chronic pain patients, respectively (mean +/- SEM). Of the surgical patients, only 4 of the 30 (13%) maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia, and a pain score below 2 throughout the study compared with 7 of the 12 patients with chronic pain (58%) (P less than 0.01). Mean duration of sensory blockade was significantly longer (P less than 0.005) in the patients with chronic pain than in surgical patients (13.1 +/- 1.2 and 8.5 +/- 0.7 hours, respectively). Thus, surgical injury hastens regression of sensory analgesia during continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion. The underlying mechanism remains to be determined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Twenty-four otherwise healthy patients scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery received general anesthesia plus lumbar epidural analgesia with a loading dose of plain bupivacaine 0.5% to produce sensory analgesia (pinprick) from Th4 to S5. Two groups of patients were matched with regard to age, sex, height, body weight, and surgical procedure. The 12 patients in one group received continuous infusion of plain bupivacaine 0.5%, 8 ml/h, and the other group of 12 patients received plain bupivacaine 0.25%, 16 ml/h, starting 30 minutes after a loading dose of bupivacaine 0.5%, 23.0 +/- 0.5 ml. Pain scores on a 5-point scale and sensory analgesia (pinprick) were assessed hourly for 16 hours after skin incision. If sensory analgesia decreased more than 5 segments from the preoperative level or if the pain score reached 2 (moderate pain), the patients were removed from the study, and pain was treated with opiates. Preoperative mean (+/-SEM) sensory levels of analgesia were similar in both groups (Th3.9 +/- 0.7 and Th4.1 +/- 0.5 (p > 0.5). In the group receiving 8 ml/h of bupivacaine 0.5%, three patients maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia and pain score below 2 throughout the study period compared with three patients who received 16 ml/h of 0.25% bupivacaine. There was no significant difference in the duration of sensory analgesia (<5 segments regression) between the two treatments (9.5 +/- 1.2 and 11.0 +/- 1.0 hours [mean +/- SEM] p > 0.3), respectively. Thus, the pronounced variation in interindividual regression of analgesia during continuous postoperative lumbar epidural infusion of 0.5% bupivacaine cannot be avoided by administration of a double volume of 0.25% bupivacaine.
(C)1988 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 06/1988; 13(3). · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-four otherwise healthy patients scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery received general anaesthesia plus lumbar extradural analgesia. A loading dose of 0.5% plain bupivacaine was given to produce sensory analgesia (pin prick) from T4 to S5 and followed by a continuous infusion of 0.5% plain bupivacaine 8 ml h-1. Pain, scored on a 5-point scale, and sensory analgesia were assessed hourly for 16 h after skin incision. If sensory analgesia decreased by more than 5 segments from its preoperative level, or if the pain score reached 2 (moderate pain), the patients were removed from the study, and pain was treated otherwise. Only three patients maintained their initial levels of sensory analgesia and a pain score of less than 2. In the remaining patients sensory analgesia decreased at least 5 segments or pain score reached 2 between 4 and 16 h after skin incision. We found a weak correlation between increasing age and the duration of sensory analgesia (r = 0.46, P less than 0.05), but no significant correlations between duration of sensory analgesia and sex, weight, height, body surface area, serum albumin concentration, duration or site of operation.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 05/1988; 60(5):515-9. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the extradural (L2-3) administration of morphine 6 mg on early (less than 0.5 s) somatosensory evoked cortical potentials (SEP) to electrical stimulation of the L1- and S1-dermatomes was examined in eight patients. Extradural morphine did not influence SEP amplitude. SEP latency did not change, except for a minor increase in the latencies of the onset and the P2 components following S1 stimulation.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 12/1987; 59(11):1408-11. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of spinal anesthesia with 3.6 +/- 0.1 ml (mean +/- SEM) of 0.5% bupivacaine on early (less than 150 msec) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) with electrical stimulation of the L1 and S1 dermatomes was examined in 12 patients. The mean level of sensory analgesia (pinprick) was T8,9 +/- 1.0 (+/- SEM) and the mean degree of motor blockade was 1.3 +/- 0.1 (Bromage scale). Intrathecal bupivacaine significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased the amplitude of all SEP components after stimulation of the L1 dermatome and most components during stimulation of the S1 dermatome. Intrathecal bupivacaine also increased the latency of SEPs (P less than 0.05) of both dermatomes. The L1 SEP disappeared in 7 and the S1 SEPs in 5 of the 12 patients during neural blockade. In three patients the SEPs disappeared at both locations. Sensory thresholds increased significantly during blockade. We found no correlation between decrease of amplitude and degree of motor blockade or level of sensory analgesia. Thus, intrathecal plain bupivacaine has a strong depressant effect on the neural afferent transmission as assessed by SEPs. However, despite clinically effective blockade as assessed by pinprick and motor blockade nerve potentials after nociceptive stimulation within the area of sensory block were often able to pass to the cerebral cortex.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of epidural bupivacaine (9 ml 0.5%) analgesia on early (less than 500 msec) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) with electrical stimulation of the T-10 and L-1 dermatomes was examined in eight patients. Cortical amplitudes decreased only insignificantly after stimulation of both dermatomes, despite the presence of sensory analgesia (pin prick) from T-3.5 +/- 0.4 to L-2.9 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM). Latency of the SEP components remained unchanged and sensory threshold increased only insignificantly during blockade. We conclude that thoracic epidural analgesia with conventional doses of bupivacaine provides only a limited blockade of fast conducting afferent nerve fibers.