[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells modulate expression of nuclear genes in response to alterations in mitochondrial function, a response termed retrograde (RTG) regulation. In budding yeast, the RTG pathway relies on Rtg1 and Rtg3 basic helix-loop-helix leucine Zipper transcription factors. Exposure of yeast to external hyperosmolarity activates the Hog1 Stress-Activated Protein Kinase (SAPK), which is a key player in the regulation of gene expression upon stress. Several transcription factors, including Sko1, Hot1, the redundant Msn2 and Msn4, and Smp1, have been shown to be directly controlled by the Hog1 SAPK. The mechanisms by which Hog1 regulates their activity differ from one to another. Here, we show that Rtg1 and Rtg3 transcription factors are new targets of the Hog1 SAPK. In response to osmostress, RTG-dependent genes are induced in a Hog1-dependent manner and Hog1 is required for Rtg1/3 complex nuclear accumulation. In addition, Hog1 activity regulates Rtg1/3 binding to chromatin and transcriptional activity. Therefore, Hog1 modulates Rtg1/3 complex activity by multiple mechanisms in response to stress. Overall, our data suggest that Hog1, through activation of the RTG pathway, contributes to ensure mitochondrial function as part of the Hog1-mediated osmoadaptive response.
Molecular biology of the cell 09/2012; · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To ensure cell survival and growth during temperature increase, eukaryotic organisms respond with transcriptional activation that results in accumulation of proteins that protect against damage and facilitate recovery. To define the global cellular adaptation response to heat stress, we performed a systematic genetic screen that yielded 277 yeast genes required for growth at high temperature. Of these, the Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex was enriched. Global gene expression analysis showed that Rpd3 partially regulated gene expression upon heat shock. The Hsf1 and Msn2/4 transcription factors are the main regulators of gene activation in response to heat stress. RPD3-deficient cells had impaired activation of Msn2/4-dependent genes, while activation of genes controlled by Hsf1 was deacetylase-independent. Rpd3 bound to heat stress-dependent promoters through the Msn2/4 transcription factors, allowing entry of RNA Pol II and activation of transcription upon stress. Finally, we found that the large, but not the small Rpd3 complex regulated cell adaptation in response to heat stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mdx mice show a milder phenotype than Duchenne patients despite bearing an analogous genetic defect. Our aim was to sort out genes, differentially expressed during the evolution of skeletal muscle mdx mouse disease, to elucidate the mechanisms by which these animals overcome the lack of dystrophin. Genome-wide microarray-based gene expression analysis was carried out at 3 wk and 1.5 and 3 mo of life. Candidate genes were selected by comparing: 1) mdx vs. controls at each point in time, and 2) mdx mice and 3) control mice among the three points in time. The first analysis showed a strong upregulation (96%) of inflammation-related genes and in >75% of genes related to cell adhesion, muscle structure/regeneration, and extracellular matrix remodeling during mdx disease evolution. Lgals3, Postn, Ctss, and Sln genes showed the strongest variations. The analysis performed among points in time demonstrated significant changes in Ecm1, Spon1, Thbs1, Csrp3, Myo10, Pde4b, and Adamts-5 exclusively during mdx mice lifespan. RT-PCR analysis of Postn, Sln, Ctss, Thbs1, Ecm1, and Adamts-5 expression from 3 wk to 9 mo, confirmed microarray data and demonstrated variations beyond 3 mo of age. A high-confidence functional network analysis demonstrated a strong relationship between them and showed two main subnetworks, having Dmd-Utrn-Myo10 and Adamts5-Thbs1-Spon1-Postn as principal nodes, which are functionally linked to Abca1, Actn4, Crebbp, Csrp3, Lama1, Lama3, Mical2, Mical3, Myf6, Pxn, and Sparc genes. Candidate genes may participate in the decline of muscle necrosis in mdx mice and could be considered potential therapeutic targets for Duchenne patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used the mdx mice strain (C57BL/10ScSn-mdx) as an experimental subject for the study of reiterative skeletal muscle necrosis-regeneration with basement membrane preservation. In young mdx muscle, by means of Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, different types of degenerative-regenerative groups (DRG) can be recognized and assigned to a defined muscle regeneration phase. To evaluate the expression of known key-regulatory genes in muscle regeneration, we have applied Laser Capture Microdissection technique to obtain tissue from different DRGs encompassing the complete skeletal muscle regenerative process. The expression of MyoD, Myf-5 and Myogenin showed a rapid increase in the first two days post-necrosis, which were followed by MRF4 expression, when newly regenerating fibers started to appear (3-5days post-necrosis). MHCd mRNA levels, undetectable in mature non-injured fibers, increased progressively from the first day post-necrosis and reached its maximum level of expression in DRGs showing basophilic regenerating fibers. TGFbeta-1 mRNA expression showed a prompt and strong increase following fiber necrosis that persisted during the inflammatory phase, and progressively decreased when new regenerating fibers began to appear. In contrast, IGF-2 mRNA expression decreased during the first days post-necrosis but was followed by a progressive rise in its expression coinciding with the appearance of the newly formed myofibers, reaching the maximum expression levels in DRGs composed of medium caliber basophilic regenerating myofibers (5-7 days post-necrosis). mdx degenerative-regenerative group typing, in conjunction with laser microdissection-based gene expression analysis, opens up a new approach to the molecular study of skeletal muscle regeneration.