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Publications (4)10.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To measure the buffering capacity of bovine vitreous to HCl, NaOH, and triamcinolone acetonide. Vitreous was dissected from 10 bovine globes, homogenized, and divided into 5.0-mL aliquots. The carbonate/bicarbonate buffer of the vitreous was maintained by performing all subsequent titrations under an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% air. The pH was monitored during the addition of 0.1 N HCl, 0.1 N NaOH, or 40 mg/mL triamcinolone acetonide to the vitreous sample; 0.9% NaCl was used as control. The buffering capacity of bovine vitreous to HCl was 10 times greater than that of 0.9% NaCl. The buffering capacity of vitreous to NaOH was four times greater than that of 0.9% NaCl. Bovine vitreous was able to resist pH changes from addition of triamcinolone acetonide at levels 20 times greater than commonly injected intravitreally. Vitreous had a greater buffering capacity than 0.9% NaCl, indicating a greater capacity to remain stable when acidic or alkaline pharmaceuticals are injected in microliter amounts.
    Retina 02/2008; 28(1):150-3. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triamcinolone acetonide has been effectively used in ocular therapeutics for over 50 years. Its use has increased dramatically in recent years for periocular and intraocular treatment of retinal vasculature disease and uveitis. This comprehensive review discusses the pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide and summarizes its uses in a number of diseases, both intraocular and extraocular. It discusses side effects and their management. Finally, it discusses the controversy over its use.
    Survey of Ophthalmology 01/2008; 52(5):503-22. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Christopher M. Jermak, Gholam A. Peyman
    Survey of Ophthalmology 01/2008; 53(2):184. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the retinal toxicity of varying concentrations of intravitreally injected gatifloxacin and levofloxacin. In this experimental, controlled study, levofloxacin (initial concentration = 25 mg/mL) and gatifloxacin (initial concentration = 2 mg/mL) were titrated using 5% dextrose solution to concentrations of 2,500 to 156 microg/0.1 mL and 400 to 50 microg/0.1 mL, respectively. Each concentration was injected intravitreally into two rabbit eyes (one eye per animal); two control eyes were injected with 0.1 mL of 5% dextrose solution. All animals were examined and electroretinography was performed before and 14 days after injection. The animals were killed at 14 days; the eyes were enucleated and prepared for light microscopy. The levofloxacin group exhibited significant decreases in electroretinography in the eyes injected with 1,250 and 2,500 microg. No signs of retinal toxicity were observed on slit-lamp examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, or light microscopy in all eyes injected intravitreally with 625 microg or less of levofloxacin or in any eyes given gatifloxacin. Intravitreally injected concentrations of 625 microg or less of levofloxacin and 400 microg or less of gatifloxacin appeared nontoxic.
    Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging 37(3):224-9. · 1.46 Impact Factor