[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adiponectin signalling pathway is largely unknown, but recently the adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif (APPL1), has been shown to interact directly with adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR)1. APPL1 is present in C2C12 myoblasts and mouse skeletal muscle, but its presence in human skeletal muscle has not been investigated.
Samples from type 2 diabetic, and lean and non-diabetic obese participants were analysed by: immunoprecipitation and western blot; HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis; peak area analysis by MS; HPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS analysis; and RT-PCR analysis of APPL1 mRNA.
Immunoprecipitation and western blot indicated a band specific to APPL1. Tryptic digestion and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of whole-muscle homogenate APPL1 unambiguously identified APPL1 with 56% sequence coverage. Peak area analysis by MS validated western blot results, showing APPL1 levels to be significantly increased in type 2 diabetic and obese as compared with lean participants. Targeted phosphopeptide analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS showed that APPL1 was phosphorylated specifically on Ser(401). APPL1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in obese and type 2 diabetic participants as compared with lean participants. After bariatric surgery in morbidly obese participants with subsequent weight loss, skeletal muscle APPL1 abundance was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in association with an increase in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.01), increased levels of ADIPOR1 (p < 0.05) and increased muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05).
APPL1 abundance is significantly higher in type 2 diabetic muscle; APPL1 is phosphorylated in vivo on Ser(401). Improvements in hyperglycaemia and hypoadiponectinaemia following weight loss are associated with reduced skeletal muscle APPL1, and increased plasma adiponectin levels and muscle AMPK phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is regulated by both tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of some serine/threonine residues in IRS-1 dampens insulin signaling, whereas phosphorylation of other serine/threonine residues enhances insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of human IRS-1 at Ser629 was increased by insulin in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the insulin receptor (1.26 ± 0.09-fold; P < 0.05) and L6 cells (1.35 ± 0.29-fold; P < 0.05) expressinghuman IRS-1. Sequence analysis surrounding Ser629 revealed conformity to the consensus phosphorylation sequence recognized by Akt. Phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser629 in cells was decreased upon treatment with either an Akt inhibitor or by coexpression with kinase dead Akt, whereas Ser629 phosphorylation was increased by coexpression with constitutively active Akt. In addition, Ser629 of IRS-1 is directly phosphorylated by Akt in vitro. In cells, preventing phosphorylation of Ser 629 by a Ser629Ala mutation resulted in increased phosphorylation of Ser636, a known negative regulator of IRS-1, without affecting phosphorylation of Tyr632 or Ser616. Cells expressing the Ser629Ala mutation, along with increased Ser636 phosphorylation, had decreased insulin-stimulated association of the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase with IRS-1 and decreased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Finally, in vitro phosphorylation of a Ser629-containing IRS-1 fragment with Akt reduces the subsequent ability of ERK to phosphorylate Ser636/639. These results suggest that a feed-forward mechanism may exist whereby insulin activation of Akt leads to phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser629, resulting in decreased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser636 and enhanced downstream signaling. Understanding the complex phosphorylation patterns of IRS-1 is crucial to elucidating the factors contributing to insulin resistance and, ultimately, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grb10 is a pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein that interacts with a number of phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases, including the insulin receptor. In mice, Grb10 gene expression is imprinted with maternal expression in all tissues except the brain. While the interaction between Grb10 and the insulin receptor has been extensively investigated in cultured cells, whether this adaptor protein plays a positive or negative role in insulin signaling and action remains controversial. In order to investigate the in vivo role of Grb10 in insulin signaling and action in the periphery, we generated Grb10 knockout mice by the gene trap technique and analyzed mice with maternal inheritance of the knockout allele. Disruption of Grb10 gene expression in peripheral tissues had no significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, peripheral-tissue-specific knockout of Grb10 led to significant overgrowth of the mice, consistent with a role for endogenous Grb10 as a growth suppressor. Loss of Grb10 expression in insulin target tissues, such as skeletal muscle and fat, resulted in enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that disruption of Grb10 gene expression in peripheral tissues led to increased insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence that Grb10 is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and action in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin, also known as Acrp30, is an adipose tissue-derived hormone with anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties. Two seven-transmembrane domain-containing proteins, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have recently been identified as adiponectin receptors, yet signalling events downstream of these receptors remain poorly defined. By using the cytoplasmic domain of AdipoR1 as bait, we screened a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from human fetal brain. This screening led to the identification of a phosphotyrosine binding domain and a pleckstrin homology domain-containing adaptor protein, APPL1 (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain and leucine zipper motif). APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors in mammalian cells and the interaction is stimulated by adiponectin. Overexpression of APPL1 increases, and suppression of APPL1 level reduces, adiponectin signalling and adiponectin-mediated downstream events (such as lipid oxidation, glucose uptake and the membrane translocation of glucose transport 4 (GLUT4)). Adiponectin stimulates the interaction between APPL1 and Rab5 (a small GTPase) interaction, leading to increased GLUT4 membrane translocation. APPL1 also acts as a critical regulator of the crosstalk between adiponectin signalling and insulin signalling pathways. These results demonstrate a key function for APPL1 in adiponectin signalling and provide a molecular mechanism for the insulin sensitizing function of adiponectin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMPK is a key regulator of fat and carbohydrate metabolism. It has been postulated that defects in AMPK signaling could be responsible for some of the metabolic abnormalities of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined whether insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats have abnormalities in the AMPK pathway. We compared AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and the protein content of the upstream AMPK kinase LKB1 and the AMPK-regulated transcriptional coactivator PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) in gastrocnemius of sedentary obese Zucker rats and sedentary lean Zucker rats. We also examined whether 7 wk of exercise training on a treadmill reversed abnormalities in the AMPK pathway in obese Zucker rats. In the obese rats, AMPK phosphorylation was reduced by 45% compared with lean rats. Protein expression of the AMPK kinase LKB1 was also reduced in the muscle from obese rats by 43%. In obese rats, phosphorylation of ACC and protein expression of PGC-1alpha, two AMPK-regulated proteins, tended to be reduced by 50 (P = 0.07) and 35% (P = 0.1), respectively. There were no differences in AMPKalpha1, -alpha2, -beta1, -beta2, and -gamma3 protein content between lean and obese rats. Training caused a 1.5-fold increase in AMPKalpha1 protein content in the obese rats, although there was no effect of training on AMPK phosphorylation and the other AMPK isoforms. Furthermore, training also significantly increased LKB1 and PGC-1alpha protein content 2.8- and 2.5-fold, respectively, in the obese rats. LKB1 protein strongly correlated with hexokinase II activity (r = 0.75, P = 0.001), citrate synthase activity (r = 0.54, P = 0.02), and PGC-1alpha protein content (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). In summary, obese insulin-resistant rodents have abnormalities in the LKB1-AMPK-PGC-1 pathway in muscle, and these abnormalities can be restored by training.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It recently has been hypothesized that excessive activity of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inflammatory pathway is a mechanism underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is abnormal. We studied IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in vastus lateralis muscle from six subjects with type 2 diabetes and eight matched control subjects. Muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects was characterized by a 60% decrease in IkappaB beta protein abundance, an indicator of increased activation of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. IkappaB beta abundance directly correlated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) during a hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp (r = 0.63, P = 0.01), indicating that increased IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway activity is associated with muscle insulin resistance. We also investigated whether reversal of this abnormality could be a mechanism by which training improves insulin sensitivity. In control subjects, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training caused a 50% increase in both IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, training increased IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein to levels comparable with that of control subjects, and these increments were accompanied by a 40% decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha muscle content and a 37% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In summary, subjects with type 2 diabetes have reduced IkappaB protein abundance in muscle, suggesting excessive activity of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Moreover, this abnormality is reversed by exercise training.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine how improved insulin signaling, GLUT4 expression, and glycogen synthase activity contribute to this improvement. Euglycemic clamps with indirect calorimetry and muscle biopsies were performed before and after 8 weeks of exercise training in 16 insulin-resistant nondiabetic subjects and 6 type 2 diabetic patients. Training increased peak aerobic capacity (Vo(2peak)) in both nondiabetic (from 34 +/- 2 to 39 +/- 2 mL O(2)/kg fat-free mass [FFM]/min, 14% +/- 2%, P <.001) and diabetic (from 26 +/- 3 to 34 +/- 3 mL O(2)/kg FFM/min, 32% +/- 4%) subjects. Training also increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in nondiabetic (from 6.2 +/- 0.5 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 mg/kg FFM/min) and diabetic subjects (from 4.3 +/- 0.6 to 5.5 +/- 0.6 mg/kg FFM/min). Total glycogen synthase activity was increased by 46% +/- 17% and 45% +/- 12% in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects, respectively, in response to training (P <.01 v before training). Moreover, after training, glycogen synthase fractional velocity was correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose storage (r = 0.53, P <.05) and the training-induced improvement in glucose disposal was accounted for primarily by increased insulin-stimulated glucose storage. Training also increased GLUT4 protein by 38% +/- 8% and 22% +/- 10% in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects, respectively (P <.05 v. before training). Akt protein expression, which was decreased by 29% +/- 3% (P <.05) in the diabetic subjects before training (compared to the nondiabetics), increased significantly in both groups (P <.001). In contrast, exercise training did not enhance the ability of insulin to stimulate insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI 3)-kinase activity. The present data are consistent with a working model whereby 8 weeks of exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal primarily by increasing GLUT4 protein expression without enhancing insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase signaling, and that once the glucose enters the myocyte, increased glycogen synthase activity preferentially shunts it into glycogen synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise improves insulin action in muscle, but the mechanisms are poorly characterized. Despite the notion that increased insulin signaling would accompany improved insulin sensitivity, this is not universally true. Increased activity or expression of other proteins seems to be more important. An increase in activity and expression of glycogen synthase and GLUT4 may be key to the effects of exercise.
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 08/2004; 32(3):90-4. DOI:10.1097/00003677-200407000-00003 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors contributing to the ability of exercise to enhance insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Sixteen insulin-resistant nondiabetic and seven Type 2 diabetic subjects underwent two hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m-2 x min-1) clamps, once without and once with concomitant exercise at 70% peak O2 consumption. Exercise was begun at the start of insulin infusion and was performed for 30 min. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were performed before and after 30 min of insulin infusion (immediately after cessation of exercise). Exercise synergistically increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in nondiabetic [from 4.6 +/- 0.4 to 9.5 +/- 0.8 mg x kg fat-free mass (FFM)-1x min-1] and diabetic subjects (from 4.3 +/- 1.0 to 7.9 +/- 0.7 mg. kg FFM-1x min-1) subjects. The rate of glucose disposal also was significantly greater in each group after cessation of exercise. Exercise enhanced insulin-stimulated increases in glycogen synthase fractional velocity in control (from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.22 +/- 0.05, P < 0.05) and diabetic (from 0.08 +/- 0.03 to 0.15 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01) subjects. Exercise also enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose storage (glycogen synthesis) in nondiabetic (2.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.1 mg x kg FFM-1x min-1) and diabetic (1.7 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.8 mg x kg FFM-1. min-1) subjects. Increased glucose storage accounted for the increase in whole body glucose disposal when exercise was performed during insulin stimulation in both groups; effects of exercise were correlated with enhancement of glucose disposal and glucose storage (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). Exercise synergistically enhanced insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity (P < 0.05) and Akt Ser473 phosphorylation (P < 0.05) in nondiabetic subjects but had little effect in diabetic subjects. The data indicate that exercise, performed in conjunction with insulin infusion, synergistically increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal compared with insulin alone. In nondiabetic and diabetic subjects, increased glycogen synthase activation is likely to be involved, in part, in this effect. In nondiabetic, but not diabetic, subjects, exercise-induced enhancement of insulin stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway is also likely to be involved in the exercise-induced synergistic enhancement of glucose disposal.