[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumer participation in planning and implementing health care is actively encouraged as a means of improving patient outcomes. In assessing the ability of patients to self-medicate, health professionals can identify areas in which patients need assistance, education, and intervention to optimize their health outcomes after discharge.
To develop and validate a tool to quantify the ability of patients to administer their regularly scheduled medications while they are hospitalized.
Past research enabled us to develop the Self-Administration of Medication (SAM) tool. Using a Delphi technique of 3 rounds, a panel of expert health professionals established the content validity of the tool. For determining level of agreement in using the SAM tool, 56 patients were selected; for each patient, 2 randomly selected nurses completed an assessment. Construct validity and internal consistency were examined by testing the tool in 50 patients and comparing with other validated scales.
The 29-item SAM tool had high content validity scores for clarity, representation, and comprehensiveness, with content validity index values ranging from 0.95-1.0. In testing the level of agreement between 2 nurses, out of 43 valid cases, 95.3% of nurses overwhelmingly agreed about the patients' competence to self-administer their drugs. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.819 (95% CI 0.666 to 0.902). Internal consistency for the SAM tool was high, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.899. A moderate to strong correlation was obtained when comparing the SAM tool with other validated measures.
The SAM tool is valid and reliable for quantifying patients' ability to manage their regularly scheduled medications in the hospital setting.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy 07/2006; 40(6):1064-73. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative back pain is a common, yet under reported, complication of surgery. Previous studies, although small in number, have indicated that the use of a sacral wedge is effective in reducing the incidence of postoperative back pain.
The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the intra-operative use of a sacral wedge would decrease the incidence of postoperative back pain in patients undergoing trans-urethral resection of the prostate in lithotomy position.
The design of the study was a randomized controlled trial involving the use of a sacral wedge intra-operatively in a male population undergoing trans-urethral resection of the prostate. A total of 236 participants was recruited to the study and allocated to the control or intervention group by block randomization. All patients selected one of three different sized sacral wedges for use during surgery. Data were collected preoperatively, intra-operatively and at postoperative days 2 and 4 and the tools included a structured questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, a visual analogue scale to measure pain intensity and a body map to record its location.
Fifty-two per cent of participants reported having a history of back pain and point prevalence on admission to hospital was 27%. Twenty-eight per cent of participants experienced back pain on day 2 postoperatively and this decreased to 14% on day 4. There was no significant difference between the control and intervention groups. The severity of back pain increased after surgery. Postoperatively there were reports of back pain from participants who had not reported a history of back pain before their admission for surgery.
In contrast to other studies we found no evidence to support the use of a sacral wedge intra-operatively to reduce the incidence of postoperative back pain.
Despite the non-significant results, the high level of postoperative back pain stills draws attention to the need to develop strategies to reduce its incidence.
Journal of Clinical Nursing 12/2004; 13(8):977-85. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little information is available about patients' perspectives on self- or nurse-related administration of medication.
The aim of the study was to determine patients' perspectives about self-medication in the acute care setting.
A qualitative approach, using in-depth semi-structured interviews, was taken. Ten patients with a chronic medical illness who had experienced multiple hospital admissions for treatment were interviewed about their experiences of medication administration in the acute care setting. Participants were recruited from two cardiovascular wards in a private, not-for-profit hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Data collection occurred between August and September 2002.
Four major themes were identified from the interviews: benefits of self-administration, barriers to self-administration, assessing appropriateness of self-administration and timing of medication administration. Seven participants had previously experienced self-administration of medications and six were in favour of this practice in the clinical setting. Nine managed their own medications at home, and one self-administered with some assistance from his family. Participants were very concerned about how nurses' heavily regulated routines affected delivery of medications in hospital and disrupted individualized plans of care maintained in the home setting.
In planning and implementing self-administration programmes, it is important to consider patients' views. Medication regimes should be simple and flexible enough to adapt to patients' lifestyles and usual routines. Nurses should also take advantage of opportunities to support and facilitate patient autonomy, to enable more effective management of health care needs when patients return home.
Journal of Advanced Nursing 05/2004; 46(2):194-203. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to establish a shelf life for processed (peracetic acid) flexible colonoscopes and to demonstrate the adequacy of manual cleaning procedures. The study challenges current practice in Australia where endoscopes are routinely reprocessed prior to use if the endoscope has been sitting at least overnight. The design was a simulated study in the clinical environment and involved artificial contamination of a colonoscope, cleaning validation, and a time series analysis after processing with peracetic acid in a Steris System 1 processor and drying with 100% isopropyl alcohol. The main outcome measure was the presence of bacteria in the internal channels of the colonoscope after cleaning and at 24 and 168 hours after processing with peracetic acid. The findings suggest that colonoscopes may be left for up to 1 week before needing to be reprocessed before use, provided all channels are thoroughly reprocessed and dried, resulting in cost savings and reduced wear and tear on the instruments. The findings also demonstrate the impact of providing feedback to staff on a regular basis about the efficacy of their cleaning techniques.