[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungal colonisation by Candida spp. affects a high proportion of VLBW neonates in NICU. However, few data are available on the clinical characteristics of colonisation in preterm infants who are colonised at baseline via vertical transmission, compared to preterms who become colonised during their stay in NICU via horizontal transmission.
We reviewed the database of a multicentre, randomised trial of prophylactic fluconazole in VLBW neonates conducted in 8 Italian NICUs in the years 2004 and 2005 (Manzoni et al., NEJM 2007;356(24):2483-95). Per the protocol, all enrolled infants underwent weekly surveillance cultures from birth till discharge. We investigated the frequency of the two different modalities of Candida colonisation in this population, as well as the clinical and outcome characteristics possibly related to them.
Overall, Candida colonisation affected 54 of 336 infants (16.1%). Baseline (i.e., detected <3(rd) day of life) colonisation affected 16 (4.7%), and acquired 38 (11.4%), of the 54 colonised preterms. Infants with baseline colonisation had significantly higher birth weight (1229 ± 28 g vs. 1047 g ± 29, p = 0.01) and gestational age (30.2 wks ± 2.7 vs. 28.5 wks ± 2.6, p = 0.01), and were significantly more likely to limit progression from colonisation to invasive Candida infection when fluconazole prophylaxis was instituted (21.6% vs. 42.7%, p = 0.009). Isolation of C. parapsilosis was significantly more frequent in infants with acquired colonisation.
Infants with baseline and acquired colonisation differ for demographics characteristics and for their response to fluconazole prophylaxis. This information may be useful for targeting more accurate management strategies for these two different groups of colonised preterms in NICU.
Early human development 05/2012; 88 Suppl 2:S60-4. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive candida infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole for the prevention of fungal colonization and infection in very-low-birth-weight neonates.
During a 15-month period, all neonates weighing less than 1500 g at birth from eight tertiary Italian neonatal intensive care units (322 infants) were randomly assigned to receive either fluconazole (at a dose of either 6 mg or 3 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo from birth until day 30 of life (day 45 for neonates weighing <1000 g at birth). We performed weekly surveillance cultures and systematic fungal susceptibility testing.
Among infants receiving fluconazole, fungal colonization occurred in 9.8% in the 6-mg group and 7.7% in the 3-mg group, as compared with 29.2% in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both fluconazole groups vs. the placebo group). The incidence of invasive fungal infection was 2.7% in the 6-mg group and 3.8% in the 3-mg group, as compared with 13.2% in the placebo group (P=0.005 for the 6-mg group and P=0.02 for the 3-mg group vs. the placebo group). The use of fluconazole did not modify the relationship between colonization and the subsequent development of invasive fungal infection. Overall mortality was similar among groups, as was the incidence of cholestasis. No evidence for the emergence of resistant candida species was observed, but the study did not have substantial power to detect such an effect.
Prophylactic fluconazole reduces the incidence of colonization and invasive candida infection in neonates weighing less than 1500 g at birth. The benefit of treating candida colonization is unclear. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN85753869 [controlled-trials.com]).
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2007; 356(24):2483-95. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease, but little is known about its relationship with perinatal risk factors. We tested the hypothesis that the mode of delivery may be associated with threshold ROP as defined by CRYO-ROP.
We conducted a prospective, cohort analysis of a database of all extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates (= birth weight < 1000 g) admitted over a 8-year period from 1997 to 2004 to a large tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in a urban area of northern Italy and screened for ROP. Incidence of threshold ROP was calculated for the whole studied population. The definition of threshold ROP was as defined by the CRYO-ROP study. Univariate analysis was performed to look for significant associations between threshold ROP and several possible associated factors, and among them, the mode of delivery (vaginal delivery or caesarean section). When an association was indicated by p < 0.05, multiple logistic regression was used to determine the factors significantly associated with ROP.
Enrolled ELBW neonates were 174, and 46 of them (26.4%) displayed threshold ROP. Threshold ROP occurred in 40.9% (27 of 66) of the neonates vaginally delivered and in 17.5% (19 of 108) of those born via caesarean section (R.R. 3.35; 95% CI 1.230-4.855; p = 0.008 at univariate analysis, and = 0.04 at multivariate logistic regression after controlling for birth weight, gestational age, intraventricular haemorrhage grade 2 or more, days on supplemental oxygen, systemic fungal infection). Birth by vaginal delivery was not significantly associated with other major sequelae of prematurity (intraventricular haemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis).
In our Institution birth by vaginal delivery is a significant and independent predictor of threshold ROP in ELBW infants. We suggest to consider closely ophthalmological surveillance for pre-term ELBW infants born this mode.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutropenia is a major risk factor for bacterial colonization and sepsis in preterm neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but little is known about its relationships with candidal colonization (CC) in these settings. We performed a case-control study on neonates with birth weight of <1500 g admitted to our NICU during a 7-year period (1996-2003, N = 585). Through database search, infants with early-onset neutropenia (EON) (n = 68, group A) were identified and 1:1 matched with controls without EON (n = 68, group B). Microbiologic data from weekly surveillance cultures were examined to determine the presence and intensity of CC. Groups A and B were similar clinically and demographically. All group A neonates recovered from EON before the 8th day of life. Incidence of CC in the 1st month of life (at least 1 site) was significantly higher in group A (61.8% versus 35.3%, P = 0.002) and was not modified by treatment with recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The same was true of CC intensity, expressed as the number of sites affected (P = 0.002). Incidence of candidal sepsis, mortality rates, and relative frequencies of the various subspecies of Candida among the isolates did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. In conclusion, EON in preterm neonates is a significant, independent risk factor for CC. Larger, prospective, adequately powered studies should verify whether increased CC related to neutropenia may translate into a similar increased occurrence of candidal sepsis in these settings.