[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In June 2011 the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products sponsored an international consensus conference on transfusion and trauma. A panel of 10 experts and two external advisors reviewed the current medical literature and information presented at the conference by invited international speakers and attendees. The Consensus Panel addressed six specific questions on the topic of blood transfusion in trauma. The questions focused on: ratio-based blood resuscitation in trauma patients; the impact of survivorship bias in current research conclusions; the value of nonplasma coagulation products; the role of protocols for delivery of urgent transfusion; the merits of traditional laboratory monitoring compared with measures of clot viscoelasticity; and opportunities for future research. Key findings include a lack of evidence to support the use of 1:1:1 blood component ratios as the standard of care, the importance of early use of tranexamic acid, the expected value of an organized response plan, and the recommendation for an integrated approach that includes antifibrinolytics, rapid release of red blood cells, and a foundation ratio of blood components adjusted by results from either traditional coagulation tests or clot viscoelasticity or both. The present report is intended to provide guidance to practitioners, hospitals, and policy-makers.
Critical care (London, England) 12/2011; 15(6):242. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This observational study sought to identify the off-label use pattern of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in cardiac surgery and to identify predictors of its effectiveness and risk.
At 18 Canadian centers, 522 nonhemophiliac cardiac surgical patients received rFVIIa during the period 2003 through 2006; data were available, and retrospectively collected, on 503 patients. The median (quartile 1, quartile 3) units of red blood cells transfused from surgery to therapy and in the 24 hours after therapy were 8 (5, 12) and 2 (1, 5), respectively (P<0.0001). Mortality rate was 32%, and mortality or major morbidity rate was 44%. These rates were within expected ranges (mortality, 27% to 35%; mortality or morbidity, 39% to 48%), which were calculated with a separate cohort of cardiac surgical patients who did not receive rFVIIa used as reference. Independent predictors of complications included instability before therapy (multiple inotropes or intra-aortic balloon pump) and increasing red blood cell units transfused before and after therapy. Variables independently associated with nonresponse included abnormal coagulation parameters and >15 red blood cell units transfused before therapy.
In Canada, rFVIIa is used primarily when standard interventions have failed to control bleeding. In this setting, rFVIIa is associated with reduced blood product transfusions and, after risk adjustment, does not appear to be associated with increased or decreased complication rates. The effectiveness of the drug may be enhanced if it is given early in the course of refractory blood loss in the setting of adequate amounts of circulating coagulation factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antifibrinolytic agents are commonly used during cardiac surgery to minimize bleeding and to reduce exposure to blood products. We sought to determine whether aprotinin was superior to either tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid in decreasing massive postoperative bleeding and other clinically important consequences.
In this multicenter, blinded trial, we randomly assigned 2331 high-risk cardiac surgical patients to one of three groups: 781 received aprotinin, 770 received tranexamic acid, and 780 received aminocaproic acid. The primary outcome was massive postoperative bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death from any cause at 30 days.
The trial was terminated early because of a higher rate of death in patients receiving aprotinin. A total of 74 patients (9.5%) in the aprotinin group had massive bleeding, as compared with 93 (12.1%) in the tranexamic acid group and 94 (12.1%) in the aminocaproic acid group (relative risk in the aprotinin group for both comparisons, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 1.05). At 30 days, the rate of death from any cause was 6.0% in the aprotinin group, as compared with 3.9% in the tranexamic acid group (relative risk, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.42) and 4.0% in the aminocaproic acid group (relative risk, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.36). The relative risk of death in the aprotinin group, as compared with that in both groups receiving lysine analogues, was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.22).
Despite the possibility of a modest reduction in the risk of massive bleeding, the strong and consistent negative mortality trend associated with aprotinin, as compared with the lysine analogues, precludes its use in high-risk cardiac surgery. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN15166455 [controlled-trials.com].).
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2008; 358(22):2319-31. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish Canadian guidelines for training in adult perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).
Guidelines were established by the Canadian Perioperative Echocardiography Group with the support of the cardiovascular section of the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS) in conjunction with the Canadian Society of Echocardiography. Guidelines for training in echocardiography by the American Society of Echocardiography, the American College of Cardiology and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists were reviewed, modified and expanded to produce the 2003 Quebec expert consensus for training in perioperative echocardiography. The Quebec expert consensus and the 2005 Guidelines for the provision of echocardiography in Canada formed the basis of the Canadian training guidelines in adult perioperative TEE.
Basic, advanced and director levels of expertise were identified. The total number of echocardiographic examinations to achieve each level of expertise remains unchanged from the 2002 American Society of Echocardiography-Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists guidelines. The increased proportion of examinations personally performed at basic and advanced levels, and the level of autonomy at the basic level suggested by the Quebec expert consensus are retained. These examinations can be performed in a perioperative setting and are not limited to intraoperative TEE. Training "on the job", the role of the perioperative transesophageal echocardiography examination, requirements for maintenance of competence, and duration of training are also discussed for each level of training. The components of a TEE report and comprehensive TEE examination are also outlined.
The Canadian guidelines for training in adult perioperative TEE reflect the unique Canadian practice profile in perioperative TEE and address the training requirements to obtain expertise in this field.
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2006; 53(10):1044-60. · 2.13 Impact Factor