Carroll-Ann W Goldsmith

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (8)17.08 Total impact

  • Scott Massey, Louise Lee, Susan White, Carroll-Ann W. Goldsmith
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To compare depression, anxiety, and academic achievement in a pilot study of two cohorts of first year doctor of pharmacy students in an accelerated curriculum, one receiving the majority of class content via synchronized distance education, the other via traditional delivery (TD).Methods Depression and anxiety were measured using Beck Depression Inventory-II and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 surveys at the beginning and end of students' fall and spring trimesters and at the end of the summer trimester. Academic achievement was measured by final course averages across the curriculum.ResultsDepression, anxiety, and academic achievement were not significantly different between synchronized distance education and TD cohorts. Depression scores for all students significantly increased during each trimester and over the academic year.Conclusions No significant differences in depression, anxiety, or academic success were found between synchronized distance education and TD students. All students experienced significant increases in depression over time, regardless of mode of instruction.
    Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 10/2012; 4(4):285–291. DOI:10.1016/j.cptl.2012.05.005
  • Donald P Rogers, Carroll-Ann W Goldsmith
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last six decades, the treatment of schizophrenia has focused primarily on interactions at monoamine neurotransmitter receptor sites, including those for dopamine and serotonin. While first-generation antipsychotics demonstrate antagonism at the dopamine 2 receptor, newer atypical agents involve multiple receptors at various neurotransmitter sites. Despite the advent of these newer agents, the treatment of schizophrenia continues to elude clinicians, perhaps owing to a lack of information about the factors contributing to the development of the disease. While the etiology is complex and not yet fully delineated, we suggest that treating clinicians be willing to look beyond neurotransmitters and entertain other potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. One such factor that is often overlooked is the possible contribution of autoimmunity to disease development in at least a subset of patients. In this article we make an argument for consideration of immune dysfunction in the development of schizophrenia and suggest future directions for the field.
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 02/2009; 9(1):47-54. DOI:10.1586/14737175.9.1.47 · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Carroll-Ann W Goldsmith, Donald P Rogers
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of schizophrenia has frustrated clinicians for over 50 years. Despite advances in neurotransmitter identification and the development of drugs targeting these transmitters, total remission of the disease is not always achieved. Potential etiologies other than neurotransmitter dysfunction merit consideration. One intriguing concept is the possible contribution of autoimmunity in patients with the disease. This breakdown of self-tolerance has been implicated in patients with other chronic diseases, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus and myasthenia gravis. The literature on autoimmunity as a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia can be conflicting, but there is a substantial amount of circumstantial, although not conclusive, evidence of immune dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.
    Pharmacotherapy 07/2008; 28(6):730-41. DOI:10.1592/phco.28.6.730 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies reveal increased incidence of lung infection when air pollution particle levels are increased. We postulate that one risk factor for bacterial pneumonia, prior viral infection, can prime the lung for greater deleterious effects of particles via the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) characteristic of successful host anti-viral responses. To test this postulate, we developed a mouse model in which mice were treated with gamma-interferon aerosol, followed by exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) collected from urban air. The mice were then infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and the effect of these treatments on the lung's innate immune response was evaluated. The combination of IFN-gamma priming and CAPs exposure enhanced lung inflammation, manifest as increased polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN) recruitment to the lung, and elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Combined priming and CAPs exposure resulted in impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, as well as increased oxidant production and diminished bacterial uptake by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and PMNs. The data suggest that priming and CAPs exposure lead to an inflamed alveolar milieu where oxidant stress causes loss of antibacterial functions in AMs and recruited PMNs. The model reported here will allow further analysis of priming and CAPs exposure on lung sensitivity to infection.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 09/2007; 223(1):1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2007.04.014 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to ambient air pollution particles causes greater health effects in individuals with preexisting inflammatory lung diseases. To model inflammatory priming in vitro, HTB54 lung epithelial cells were pretreated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and then exposed to a panel of environmental particles, including concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). TNF-alpha priming significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-8 secretion in response to CAPs and other urban air particles in HTB54 cells. Enhancement was seen with whole CAP suspensions as well as with its separate water-soluble and -insoluble components. Treating CAP suspensions with 20 microM deferoxamine or 2 mM dimethylthiourea attenuated the enhancement, indicating that transition metals and oxidative stress participate in the CAPs-dependent IL-8 response of primed cells. Because activated neutrophils are also present in diseased lungs and are sources of additional oxidative stress on epithelial cells, primed HTB54 cells were cocultured with activated neutrophils. Wild-type neutrophils markedly enhanced IL-8 release to CAPs in primed HTB54 cells, an effect substantially diminished when neutrophils from NADPH knockout mice were used. Cytokine priming and interactions with activated neutrophils can amplify lung epithelial inflammatory responses to ambient air particles.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 06/2004; 30(5):744-50. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2003-0123OC · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Particulate air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma and other respiratory disorders. This study sought to further characterize the pulmonary effects of residual oil fly ash (ROFA), an experimentally useful surrogate for combustion-derived particulates in ambient air. Mice were exposed to aerosols of the soluble leachate of residual oil fly ash (ROFA-s). Physiologic testing of airway function (non invasive plethysmography) showed increased Penh, an index of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), in a time- and dose-dependent manner after exposure to ROFA-s. BAL analysis showed a minor influx of neutrophils, which was maximal at 12 h after exposure and essentially resolved by the time point of maximal AHR (48 h after exposure). The AHR caused by ROFA-s was reproduced by a mixture of its major metal components (Ni, V, Zn, Co, Mn, Cu) but not by any individual metal alone. Systemic pretreatment of mice with the antioxidant dimethylthiourea abrogated ROFA-s-mediated AHR. Analysis of mice of varying ages showed that ROFA-s had no marked effect on airway responsiveness of 2-wk-old mice, in contrast to the AHR seen in 3- and 8-wk old mice. ROFA-s-mediated AHR was unchanged in neurokinin 1 receptor knockout mice and in mice treated with an neurokinin antagonist, arguing against a role for this mediator in ROFA-s-mediated effects. Data indicate that ROFA-s mediates AHR in mice through antioxidant-sensitive mechanisms that require multiple metal constituents. Maturational differences in susceptibility to ROFA-induced AHR may be useful for further studies of mechanisms of particle effects.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 10/2002; 65(18):1351-65. DOI:10.1080/00984100290071586 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether coexposure to inhaled ambient particles and ozone affects airway responsiveness (AR, measured as enhanced pause, Penh) and allergic inflammation (AI) in a murine model of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized mice were challenged with either ovalbumin ("asthmatic") or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) aerosols for 3 successive days. Immediately after daily challenge, mice were exposed for 5 h to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), or 0.3 ppm ozone, or both, or neither (n > or = 61/group, 12 experiments). Exposure to CAPs alone or coexposure to CAPs + O(3) caused an increase in Penh in both normal and "asthmatic" mice. These responses were transient and small, increasing approximately 0.9% per 100-microg/m(3) increase in CAPs. Analysis of the effects of particle composition on AR revealed an association between the AlSi particle fraction and increased AR in "asthmatic" mice exposed to ozone and particles. No effects of pollutants on AI were noted. We conclude that (1) particle exposure causes an immediate, short-lived (<24 h) increase in AR in mice; (2) these responses are small; and (3) changes in AR may be correlated with specific elements within the particle mixture.
    Inhalation Toxicology 04/2002; 14(4):325-47. DOI:10.1080/08958370252870989 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BRIEF REPORT INTRODUCTION In recent years, communications technology and infrastructure have developed to the point where interac-tive educational content can be deliv-ered effectively in real time across broad geographical terrain. The use of synchronous distance education (SDE) and virtual classrooms have been shown to be effective for deliv-ering content in a variety of educa-tional settings. 1-3 However, the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant (ARC-PA) standard B1.10 states: "The [physician assistant (PA)] pro-gram must assure educational equiva-lency of course content, student experience and access to didactic and laboratory materials when instruction is conducted at geographically sepa-rate locations." 4 No previous research literature was identified that com-pared the effects of synchronized dis-tance education and traditional deliv-ery (TD) on academic achievement in a PA program. This pilot study pro-vides valuable data to those investi-gating equivalency of academic achievement between two geographi-cally separated cohorts.