Caroline C Dong

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (5)17.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) was shown to increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection in rats. In this study, the effects of DEP on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytic and bactericidal functions and cytokine secretion by AM and lymphocytes in response to Listeria monocytogenes infection were investigated in vitro and the roles of different DEP components in these processes were compared. Exposure to DEP or the organic extracts of DEP (eDEP) significantly decreased the phagocytosis and killing of L. monocytogenes by AM obtained from normal rats. Washed DEP (wDEP) also decreased AM phagocytosis and bacterial killing to a lesser extent, whereas carbon black (CB) reduced AM phagocytosis but had no significant effect on AM bactericidal activity. DEP or eDEP concentration-dependently suppressed L. monocytogenes-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-12 by AM and of IL-2 and interferon-gamma by lymphocytes obtained from L. monocytogenes-infected rats, but augmented the AM secretion of IL-10. wDEP or CB, however, exerted little or no effect on these L. monocytogenes-induced cytokines. These results provide direct evidence that DEP, through the actions of organic components, suppresses AM phagocytic and bactericidal functions in vitro. Inhibition of AM phagocytic function and alterations of AM and lymphocyte cytokine secretion by DEP and DEP organic compounds may be implicated in the diminished AM bactericidal activity and the lymphatic arm of the host immune system, thus resulting in an suppressed pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes and an increased susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 06/2007; 70(10):820-8. DOI:10.1080/15287390701209766 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in rats reduced OVA-induced airway inflammation. In the present study, Brown Norway rats were first sensitized to OVA (42.3 +/- 5.7 mg/m3) for 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15, then exposed to filtered air or DEP (22.7 +/- 2.5 mg/m3) for 4 h/day on days 24-28, and challenged with OVA on day 29. Airway responsiveness was examined on day 30, and animals were sacrificed on day 31. Ovalbumin sensitization and challenge resulted in a significant infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils into the lung, elevated presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in lung draining lymph nodes, and increased production of serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG. Diesel exhaust particles pre-exposure augmented OVA-induced production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG and pulmonary inflammation characterized by marked increases in T lymphocytes and infiltration of eosinophils after OVA challenge, whereas DEP alone did not have these effects. Although OVA-sensitized rats showed modest response to methacholine challenge, it was the combined DEP and OVA exposure that produced significant airway hyperresponsiveness in this animal model. The effect of DEP pre-exposure on OVA-induced immune responses correlated with an interactive effect of DEP with OVA on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells, NO levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the induction of inducible NO synthase expression in AM and ATII cells, and a depletion of total intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes. These results show that DEP pre-exposure exacerbates the allergic responses to the subsequent challenge with OVA in OVA-sensitized rats. This DEP effect may be, at least partially, attributed to the elevated generation of ROS in AM and ATII cells, a depletion of GSH in AM and lymphocytes, and an increase in AM and ATII cell production of NO.
    Toxicological Sciences 12/2005; 88(1):202-12. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfi280 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) during the sensitization process has been shown to increase antigen-specific IgE production and aggravate allergic airway inflammation in human and animal models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of short-term DEP exposure on ovalbumin (OVA)-mediated responses using a post-sensitization model. Brown Norway rats were first exposed to filtered air or DEP (20.6 +/- 2.7 mg/m3) for 4 h/day for five consecutive days. One day after the final air or DEP exposure (day 1), rats were sensitized with aerosolized OVA (40.5 +/- 6.3 mg/m3), and then again on days 8 and 15, challenged with OVA on day 29, and sacrificed on days 9 or 30, 24 h after the second OVA exposure or the final OVA challenge, respectively. Control animals received aerosolized saline instead of OVA. DEP were shown to elicit an adjuvant effect on the production of antigen-specific IgE and IgG on day 30. At both time points, no significant airway inflammatory responses and lung injury were found for DEP exposure alone. However, the OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, acellular lactate dehydrogenase activity and albumin content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and numbers of T cells and their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in lung-draining lymph nodes were markedly reduced by DEP on day 30 compared with the air-plus-OVA exposure group. The OVA-induced nitric oxide (NO) in the BAL fluid and production of NO, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-12 by alveolar macrophages (AM) were also significantly lowered by DEP on day 30 as well as day 9. DEP or OVA alone decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes on days 9 and 30. The combined DEP and OVA exposure resulted in further depletion of GSH in both cell types. These results show that short-term DEP exposure prior to sensitization had a delayed effect on enhancement of the sensitization in terms of allergen-specific IgE and IgG production, but caused an attenuation of the allergen-induced airway inflammatory responses.
    Toxicological Sciences 12/2005; 88(1):150-60. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfi298 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) suppresses pulmonary host defense against bacterial infection. The present study was carried out to characterize whether DEP exposure exerts a sustained effect in which inhaled DEP increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection occurring at a later time. Brown Norway rats were exposed to filtered air or DEP by inhalation at a dose of 21.2 +/- 2.3 mg/m3, 4 h/day for 5 days, and intratracheally instilled with saline or 100,000 Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) 7 days after the final DEP exposure. Bacterial growth and cellular responses to DEP and Listeria exposures were examined at 3 and 7 days post-infection. The results showed that inhaled DEP prolonged the growth of bacteria, administered 7 days post DEP exposure, in the lung as compared to the air-exposed controls. Pulmonary responses to Listeria infection were characterized by increased production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-12, and IL-10 by alveolar macrophages (AM) and increased presence of T lymphocytes and their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in lung draining lymph nodes that secreted elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Diesel exhaust particles were found to inhibit Listeria-induced production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, which are responsible for the innate immunity, and IL-12, which initiates the development of T helper (Th)1 responses, but enhance Listeria-induced AM production of IL-10, which prolongs Listeria survival in these phagocytes. The dual action of DEP on AM production of IL-12 and IL-10 correlated with an inhibition of the development of bacteria-specific T lymphocytes by DEP. Cytokine production by lymphocytes from DEP- and Listeria-exposed rats showed a marked decrease in the production of IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-gamma compared to Listeria infection alone, suggesting either that DEP inhibit the production of cytokines by lymphocytes or that these lymphocytes contained T-cell subsets that are different from those of Listeria infection alone and less effective in mediating Th1 immune responses. This study demonstrates that inhaled DEP, after a 7-day resting period, increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection occurring at a later time by inhibiting macrophage immune function and suppressing the development of T-cell-mediated immune responses. The results support the epidemiological observations that exposure to DEP may be responsible for the pulmonary health effects on humans.
    Toxicological Sciences 12/2005; 88(1):73-81. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfi279 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been shown to alter pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection. Exposure of rats to 100 mg/m(3) DEP for 4 h was found to aggravate Listeria monocytogenes(Listeria) infection at 3 days postinfection, but the bacteria were largely cleared at 7 days postinfection due to the development of a strong T cell-mediated immunity. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated DEP exposure at lower doses on pulmonary responses to bacterial infection. Brown Norway rats were exposed to DEP by inhalation at 20.62 +/- 1.31 mg/m 3 for 4 h/day for 5 days, followed by intratracheal inoculation with 100,000 Listeria at 2 h after the last DEP exposure. DEP-exposed rats showed a significant increase in lung bacterial load at both 3 and 7 days postinfection. The repeated DEP exposure was shown to suppress both the innate, orchestrated by alveolar macrophages (AM), and T cell-mediated responses to Listeria. DEP inhibited AM production of interleukin- (IL-) 1beta, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) alpha, and IL-12 but enhanced Listeria-induced AM production of IL-10, which has been shown to prolong the survival of intracellular pathogens such as Listeria. DEP exposure also suppressed the development of bacteria-specific lymphocytes from lung-draining lymph nodes, as indicated by the decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and their CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets. Furthermore, the DEP exposure markedly inhibited the Listeria-induced lymphocyte secretion of IL-2 at day 7, IL-10 at days 3 and 7, and interferon- (IFN-) gamma at days 3 to 10 postinfection when compared to air-exposed controls. These results show a sustained pattern of downregulation of T cell-mediated immune responses by repeated low-dose DEP exposure, which is different from the results of a single high-dose exposure where the acute effect of DEP aggravated bacteria infection but triggered a strong T cell-mediated immunity.
    Toxicological Sciences 03/2004; 77(2):263-71. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfh035 · 3.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

125 Citations
17.77 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2007
    • West Virginia University
      • • School of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Medicine
      Morgantown, West Virginia, United States
  • 2005
    • West Virginia School Of Osteopathic Medicine
      LWB, West Virginia, United States