[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) activate ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases that recruit coat proteins to membranes to initiate transport vesicle formation. Three mammalian GEFs are inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA). GBF1, predominantly associated with cis-Golgi membranes, functions early in the secretory pathway, whereas BIG1 and BIG2 act in trans-Golgi or later sites. Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions can result in accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins that causes ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), with accumulation of ER stress response element (ERSE) gene products. BFA treatment of cells causes accumulation of proteins in the ER, ER stress, and ultimately apoptosis. To assess involvement of BFA-sensitive GEFs in the damage resulting from prolonged BFA treatment, HepG2 cells were selectively depleted of BIG1, BIG2, or GBF1 by using specific siRNA. Only GBF1 siRNA dramatically slowed cell growth, led to cell-cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase, and caused dispersion of Golgi markers beta-COP and GM130, whereas ER structure appeared intact. GBF1 depletion also significantly increased levels of ER proteins calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Proteomic analysis identified ER chaperones involved in the UPR that were significantly increased in amounts in GBF1-depleted cells. Upon ER stress, transcription factor ATF6 translocates from the ER to Golgi, where it is sequentially cleaved by site 1 and site 2 proteases, S1P and S2P, to a 50-kDa form that activates transcription of ERSE genes. Depletion of GBF1, but not BIG1 or BIG2, induced relocation of S2P from Golgi to ER with proteolysis of ATF6 followed by up-regulation of ER chaperones, mimicking a UPR response.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2008; 105(8):2877-82. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins, BIG1 and BIG2, are activators of ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases that are essential for regulating vesicular traffic among intracellular organelles. Biochemical analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated BIG1 in nuclei as well as membranes and cytosol of serum-starved HepG2 cells. Within 20 min after addition of 8-Br-cAMP, BIG1 accumulated in nuclei, and this effect was blocked by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors H-89 and PKI, suggesting a dependence on PKA-catalyzed phosphorylation. BIG2 localization was not altered by cAMP, nor did BIG2 small interfering RNA influence nuclear accumulation of BIG1 induced by cAMP. Mutant BIG1 (S883A) in which Ala replaced Ser-883, a putative PKA phosphorylation site, did not move to the nucleus with cAMP addition, whereas replacement with Asp (S883D) resulted in nuclear accumulation of BIG1 without or with cAMP exposure, consistent with the mechanistic importance of a negative charge at that site. Mutation (712KPK714) of the nuclear localization signal inhibited BIG1 accumulation in nuclei, and PKA-catalyzed phosphorylation of S883, although necessary, was not sufficient for nuclear accumulation, as shown by the double mutation S883D/nuclear localization signal. A role for microtubules in cAMP-induced translocation of BIG1 is inferred from its inhibition by nocodazole. Thus, two more critical elements of BIG1 molecular structure were identified, as well as the potential function of microtubules in a novel PKA effect on BIG1 translocation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(8):2683-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor