C Vilches

Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (105)358.7 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among the strategies to optimize engraftment of cord blood (CB) stem cell transplantation (SCT), single CB with the co-infusion of CD34+ stem cells from a HLA-mismatched auxiliary donor (haplo-cord) provides a valid alternative for adult patients without a suitable donor. 132 high-risk adult patients with hematological malignancies from 3 Spanish institutions underwent myeloablative haplo-cord SCT. Median age was 37 years; weight 70 kg and 37% had active disease. The median number of post-processing CB total nucleated and CD34+ cells was 2.4 x 107/kg (IQR 1.8-2.9) and 1.4 x 105/kg (IQR 0.9-2), respectively. Neutrophil engraftment occurred in a median of 11.5 days (IQR 10.5-16.5) and platelet engraftment at 36 days (IQR 25.5-77). Graft failure was 2% overall and only 9% for CB. Cumulative incidence of aGVHD grades II-IV was 21% and cGVHD 21%. Median follow-up was 60 months (range 3.5-163). OS was 43.5%, EFS 38.3%, NRM 35% and relapse 20% at 5 years. Myeloablative haplo-cord SCT results in fast engraftment of neutrophils and platelets, low incidences of acute and chronic GVHD, and favorable long term outcomes using single CB units with relatively low cell content. Moreover, CB cell dose had no impact on CB engratment and survival in this study. Therefore, haplo-cord SCT expands donor availability reducing CB cell dose requirements.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 09/2014;
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    British Journal of Haematology 02/2014; · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes a highly prevalent and lifelong infection, with a multifaceted impact in human health. NK cells play an important role in the immune response to HCMV and the virus has reciprocally developed a variety of immune evasion strategies. We originally reported that HCMV infection promotes, to a variable degree in healthy individuals, a redistribution of the NK-cell receptor (NKR) repertoire which persists under steady-state conditions. Its hallmark is an expansion of a mature NK-cell subset displaying high surface levels of the CD94/NKG2C activating receptor, with additional distinctive phenotypic and functional features. Such adaptation of host NK cells to HCMV infection, confirmed in different clinical settings, is particularly magnified in immunocompromised patients and influenced by NKG2C gene copy number. The mechanism(s) underlying the differentiation and proliferation of NKG2C+ NK cells, the basis for the individual differences in the magnitude of their expansion, and their precise role in anti-viral defence remain open issues. Moreover, the possibility that the impact of HCMV infection on the NK-cell compartment may exert a broader influence on immunity deserves further attention.
    Seminars in Immunology 01/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection promotes a persistent expansion of a functionally competent NK-cell subset expressing the activating CD94/NKG2C receptor. Factors underlying the wide variability of this effect observed in HCMV-seropositive healthy individuals and exacerbated in immunocompromised patients are uncertain. A deletion of the NKG2C gene has been reported, and an apparent relation of NKG2C zygosis with circulating NKG2C(+) NK-cell numbers was observed in HCMV(+) children. We have assessed the influence of NKG2C gene dose on the NK-cell repertoire in a cohort of young healthy adults (N = 130, median age 19 years). Our results revealed a relation of NKG2C copy number with surface receptor levels and with NKG2C(+) NK-cell numbers in HCMV(+) subjects, independently of HLA-E dimorphism. Functional studies showed quantitative differences in signalling (i.e. iCa(2+) influx), degranulation and IL-15-dependent proliferation, in response to NKG2C engagement, between NK cells from NKG2C(+/+) and hemizygous subjects. These observations provide a mechanistic interpretation on the way the NKG2C genotype influences steady state NKG2C(+) NK-cell numbers, further supporting an active involvement of the receptor in the HCMV-induced reconfiguration of the NK-cell compartment. The putative implications of NKG2C zygosity over viral control and other clinical variables deserve attention This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Immunology 09/2013; · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of strategies have been designed for sequence-based HLA typing (SBT) and for the isolation of new human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, but unambiguous characterization of complete genomic sequences remains a challenge. We recently reported a simple method for the group-specific amplification (GSA) and sequencing of a full-length C*04 genomic sequence in isolation from the accompanying allele. Here we build on this strategy and present homologous methods that enable the isolation of HLA-C alleles belonging to another two allele groups. Using this approach, which can be applied to sequence-based typing in some clinical settings, we have successfully characterized three novel HLA-C alleles (C*04:128, C*07:01:01:02, and C*08:62).
    Tissue Antigens 08/2013; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As discussed in this review, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in healthy individuals is associated with a variable and persistent increase of NK cells expressing the CD94/NKG2C activating receptor. The expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells reported in other infectious diseases is systematically associated with HCMV co-infection. The functionally mature NKG2C(bright) NK-cell subset expanding in HCMV(+) individuals displays inhibitory Ig-like receptors (KIR and LILRB1) specific for self HLA class I, and low levels of NKp46 and NKp30 activating receptors. Such reconfiguration of the NK-cell compartment appears particularly marked in immunocompromised patients and in children with symptomatic congenital infection, thus suggesting that its magnitude may be inversely related with the efficiency of the T-cell-mediated response. This effect of HCMV infection is reminiscent of the pattern of response of murine Ly49H(+) NK cells against murine CMV (MCMV), and it has been hypothesized that a cognate interaction of the CD94/NKG2C receptor with HCMV-infected cells may drive the expansion of the corresponding NK-cell subset. Yet, the precise role of NKG2C(+) cells in the control of HCMV infection, the molecular mechanisms underlying the NK-cell compartment redistribution, as well as its putative influence in the response to other pathogens and tumors remain open issues.
    European Journal of Immunology 04/2013; · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Transplant Infectious Disease 03/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been reported to reshape the NK-cell receptor (NKR) distribution, promoting an expansion of CD94/NKG2C(+) NK and T cells. The role of NK cells in congenital HCMV infection is ill-defined. Here we studied the expression of NKR (i.e. NKG2C, NKG2A, LILRB1, CD161) and the frequency of the NKG2C gene deletion in children with past congenital infection, both symptomatic (n = 15) and asymptomatic (n = 11), including as controls children with postnatal infection (n = 11) and non-infected (n = 20). The expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells in HCMV-infected individuals appeared particularly marked and was associated with an increased number of LILRB1(+) NK cells in cases with symptomatic congenital infection. Increased numbers of NKG2C(+) , NKG2A(+) and CD161(+) T cells were also associated to HCMV infection. The NKG2C deletion frequency was comparable in children with congenital HCMV infection and controls. Remarkably, the homozygous NKG2C(+/+) genotype appeared associated with increased absolute numbers of NKG2C(+) NK cells. Moreover, HCMV-infected NKG2C(+/+) children displayed higher absolute numbers of NKG2A(+) and total NK cells than NKG2C(+/-) individuals. Our study provides novel insights on the impact of HCMV infection on the homeostasis of the NK-cell compartment in children, revealing a modulatory influence of NKG2C copy number.
    European Journal of Immunology 09/2012; · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms of the IL28B gene (encoding interferon-λ3) determine the spontaneous course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its response to antiviral therapy. We investigated the influence of the IL28B rs12979860 (C>T) polymorphism on the risk of severe HCV recurrence after liver transplantation. Ninety patients who underwent transplantation because of HCV cirrhosis were retrospectively analyzed; forty-one (45.6%) of them with severe HCV recurrence. Forty-eight of their paired donors were available and were also analyzed. IL28B rs12979860 was genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and evaluated for association with severe HCV recurrence, along with other variables, by univariate and multivariate analyses. The risk allele rs12979860-T was more common in transplanted patients (66.7%) than reported in healthy whites, and it was significantly overrepresented among patients with severe HCV recurrence, in comparison with patients without it (82.9% vs. 53.1%, odds ratio [OR]=4.30, etiologic fraction=63.6%; P=0.0028). Furthermore, separate analysis of the recipients' genotypes indicated that the risk of severe HCV recurrence increased with the dose of the T allele (linear trend, P=0.0068). Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the contribution of the IL28B genotype to the risk of severe HCV recurrence (OR=4.27; P=0.014), independently of other associated factors. Allele IL28B T in the donor seemed to have an opposite effect than that in the recipient (OR=0.46), but the study was underpowered to demonstrate this unforeseen effect (P=0.1995). The recipient IL28B rs12979860 genotype has a major influence on the posttransplantation course of HCV infection, being a valuable biomarker for patient care in liver transplantation.
    Transplantation 07/2012; 94(3):275-80. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) and T-lymphocytes monitor human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E expression through CD94:NKG2 heterodimers. Structural polymorphism is not a hallmark for NK-complex genes on chromosome 12, except for complete NKG2C deletion in some humans. We present a method for fast, simple and accurate assessment of NKG2C copy-number variation - presence or absence in the genome of an NKG2C gene, in homo- or heterozygosis, is detected by a single conventional polymerase chain reaction that yields amplicons of different lengths in each genotype. We have also determined the NKG2C genotypes of a reference cell panel comprising 13 NK- and tumour-cell lines and 39 Epstein-Barr virus transformed cells from the International Histocompatibility Workshop. Our results should facilitate research on the importance of NKG2C and its deletion for immunity.
    Tissue Antigens 06/2012; 80(2):184-7. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HSV-1 establishes life-long latency that can result in clinical relapses or in asymptomatic virus shedding. Although virtually all adults have been exposed to HSV-1, the clinical course varies remarkably. Genetic host variability could be related to this clinical diversity. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of gene families in chromosomes 1, 6, 12, and 19, which encode key regulators of the innate and adaptive immunity, in a cohort of 302 individuals. Class I and class II alleles of the HLA system, the copy-number variation of NK cell receptor genes (KIR and NKG2C), the combinations of killer cell Ig-like receptor and their HLA ligands, and CD16A and CD32A allotypes of variable affinity for IgG subclasses were all studied. Although no major susceptibility locus for HSV-1 was identified, our results show that the risk of suffering clinical HSV-1 infection is modified by MHC class I allotypes (B*18, C*15, and the group of alleles encoding A19), the high-affinity receptor/ligand pair KIR2DL2/HLA-C1, and the CD16A-158V/F dimorphism. Conversely, HLA class II and CD32A polymorphisms and NKG2C deletion did not seem to influence the clinical course of herpetic infection. Collectively, these findings support an important role in host defense against herpetic infection for several polymorphic genes implicated in adaptive immunity and in surveillance of its subversion. They confirm the crucial role of cytotoxic cells (CTL and NK) and the contribution of genetic diversity to the clinical course of HSV-1 infection.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(9):4412-20. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the complete sequence of a newly identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C allele, we designed a method where the full genomic sequence of HLA-C*04 was amplified in isolation from the patient second HLA-C allele in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers spanning its 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions. The new allele, officially designated HLA-C*04:71, differs from HLA-C*04:01:01:01 by two single-nucleotide polymorphisms: one determines substitution of phenylalanine for serine 9 at the B pocket of the peptide-binding site; the second substitution is a new polymorphism in intron 5. Phe-9 is characteristic of Cw1 alleles and its presence in C*04:71 most likely affects its peptide-binding repertoire. The principle we have used for C*04:71 isolation could be adapted for unambiguous sequence-based HLA-C typing of selected samples in a clinical setting.
    Tissue Antigens 04/2012; 79(4):291-4. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recently developed anti-KIR2DL5 (CD158f) antibody has demonstrated KIR2DL5 expression on the surface of NK and T lymphocytes, making it the last functional KIR identified in the human genome. KIR2DL5 belongs to an ancestral lineage of KIR with Ig-like domains of the D0-D2 type, of which KIR2DL4, an HLA-G receptor, is the only other human member. Despite KIR2DL4 and KIR2DL5 being encoded by genes with similar domain usage, several KIR2DL5 functions resemble more closely those of KIR recognizing classical HLA class I molecules - surface-expressed KIR2DL5 inhibits NK cells through the SHP-2 phosphatase and displays a clonal distribution on NK and T lymphocytes. No activating homolog of KIR2DL5 has been described in any species. The genetics of KIR2DL5 is complicated by duplication of its gene in an ancestor of modern humans living ∼1.7 million years ago. Both KIR2DL5 paralogs have undergone allelic diversification; the centromeric gene is most often represented by alleles whose expression is silenced epigenetically through DNA methylation, thus providing a natural system to investigate the regulation of KIR transcription. The role of KIR2DL5 in immunity is not completely understood, in spite of different attempts to define its ligand. Here we revisit the most relevant characteristics of KIR2DL5, an NK-cell receptor possessing a unique combination of genetic, structural, and functional features.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:289.
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    ABSTRACT: The killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which enable NK cells to detect allogeneic target cells and abnormalities in the expression of self-HLA molecules, are encoded by genes that display extensive copy number variation. These variations in the KIR genotype are relevant for multiple aspects of human health, including therapy of cancer. PCR with sequence-specific primers (SSP) is simplest and most widely used among techniques for studying KIR genotypes. Here, we present a protocol that details the critical steps of a method for KIR genotyping by PCR-SSP.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 882:415-30. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by a heterogeneous presentation and clinical course. A minority of HCM patients develop end-stage HCM and require cardiac transplantation. The genetic basis of end-stage HCM is unknown but small series, isolated case reports and animal models have related the most aggressive heart failure course with the presence of multiple mutations. Twenty-six patients (age 40.4 ± 14.5 years; 46% male) transplanted for end-stage HCM underwent genetic screening of 10 HCM-related genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1, TNNC1, MYL3, MYL2, ACTC, LDB3). Additional genetic screening of LAMP2/PRKAG2 and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was performed in four and three cases, respectively. Findings were correlated with clinical and histological features. Pathogenic mutations were identified in 15 patients (58%). Thirteen patients (50%) had mutations in sarcomeric genes (six in MYH7, three in MYBPC3, two in MYL2, one in TNNI3, and one in MYL3) and two patients had mutations in LAMP2. Only three patients (13%) had double mutations and all in homozygosis. Except for a more frequent family history of HCM, patients with mutations in sarcomeric genes did not show any clinical feature that distinguished them from patients without mutations in these genes. Evaluation of 44 relatives from 12 families identified 13 mutation carriers, 9 of whom had an overt HCM phenotype. Heart transplanted HCM has a heterogeneous genetic background where multiple mutations are uncommon. The clinical course of HCM is not primarily dependent on the presence of multiple sarcomeric mutations. Clinical and genetic evaluation of relatives does not support differential clinical management in HCM based on genetics.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 09/2011; 13(11):1193-201. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUD: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most frequent indication for orthotopic heart transplantation. It has been suggested that mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins, more typically associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, are a cause of DCM. To determine the frequency of desmosomal protein gene mutations in heart transplant recipients and their families and to examine histopathological characteristics of explanted organs from mutation carriers. 89 unrelated patients aged 47.9±13.5 years (80% male) transplanted for end-stage DCM underwent genetic screening of five desmosomal genes (PKP2, DSP, DSC2, DSG2 and JUP). The findings were correlated with clinical features and histological characteristics in explanted hearts. Pathogenic mutations were identified in 12 patients (13%). Five additional patients (6%) had genetic variants of unknown significance. The clinical phenotype of patients with pathogenic mutations was indistinguishable from that observed in patients without mutations. Evaluation of 76 relatives from 14 families with sequence variants (11 with pathogenic mutations and three with variants of unknown effect) identified 38 mutation carriers, four of whom had an overt DCM phenotype. Evidence of co-segregation of mutations with DCM phenotype was found in five families. Histological evaluation of explanted hearts did not show any specific features in patients with pathogenic mutations. Mutations in desmosomal genes are frequent in patients with advanced DCM undergoing cardiac transplantation. These findings emphasise the importance of familial evaluation and genetic counselling in patients with end-stage DCM and pose important challenges for current histopathological criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 08/2011; 97(21):1744-52. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial haplogroups are known to influence individual predisposition to a wide spectrum of metabolic and degenerative diseases, including ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. We have examined the influence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) background on the development of human end-stage heart failure (HF) in patients undergoing heart transplantation. The influence of mtDNA haplogroups on the incidence of transplant-related complications, mainly cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and on post-transplant survival was also studied. The most common mitochondrial haplogroups in European populations were genotyped in 450 heart transplant recipients, 248 heart transplant donors, and 206 healthy controls. Mitochondrial haplogroups were determined by PCR amplification of short mtDNA fragments, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. After adjustment for age and sex the frequency of haplogroup H was significantly higher in heart transplant recipients than in controls [OR: 1.86 (95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.27-2.74), P= 0.014], and in heart donors [OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99-2.19), P= 0.032]. Likewise, haplogroup Uk was found significantly more frequently among CAV patients than in non-CAV heart allograft recipients [OR: 4.1 (95% CI: 1.51-11.42), P= 0.042]. Finally, heart donor haplogroups had no influence on the morbidity or mortality after heart transplantation. Mitochondrial haplogroups behave like risk factors for the progress to end-stage HF in a Spanish cardiac transplant population. Mitochondrial DNA variants may have some influence on the appearance of cardiac transplant complications.
    European Heart Journal 08/2011; 33(3):346-53. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KIR2DS2 is an activating homologue of KIR2DL2, an inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) that surveys expression of major histocompatibility complex-C allotypes bearing a C1 epitope. We have studied here its allele KIR2DS2*005, which shows a hybrid structure-it is identical to other KIR2DS2 alleles in the ectodomain, but has transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions identical to those of KIR2DS3(*)001, a short-tailed KIR of uncertain expression and function. Our results reveal that KIR2DS2*005 is a fusion gene-the product of an unequal crossing over by which the genes KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS3 recombined within a 400 base pair region of complete identity in intron 6. Also resulting from that recombination was a shortened KIR haplotype of the B group, in which three genes commonly linked to KIR2DS2 (KIR2DL2, KIR2DL5B and KIR2DS3) are deleted. Population studies indicate that KIR2DS2*005 is still associated to such haplotype, and it can be found in approximately 1.2% of Caucasoids. Using a combination of two monoclonal antibodies, we also demonstrate that KIR2DS2*005 encodes a molecule expressed on the surface of natural killer- and T-lymphocytes.
    Genes and immunity 05/2011; 12(7):544-51. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - J HEART LUNG TRANSPLANT. 01/2011; 30(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Research on multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently requires typing for allele HLA-DRB1*1501, which the complexities of the HLA system can restrict to specialised histocompatibility laboratories. To overcome this limitation, we have implemented a simple, robust and highly specific method for DRB1*1501 detection. One single-tube polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) per DNA sample allows for detecting DR2 individuals. The spare PCR products of these are then sequenced to identify allele DRB1*1501 by comparison with the official, publicly accessible HLA database. This approach, much simpler than previously available methods, should facilitate research on MS by making accurate identification of DRB1*1501 accessible to neuroscience laboratories.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 08/2010; 225(1-2):143-8. · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
358.70 Total Impact Points


  • 1992–2014
    • Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda
      • Servicio de Inmunología
      Madrid, Spain
  • 2013
    • IMIM Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí
      San Luis, San Luis Potosí, Mexico
  • 2006–2007
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Departamento de Inmunología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2004
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      • Immunology Research Unit
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2003
    • Anthony Nolan Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2001
    • Stanford Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Structural Biology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1996
    • Fundación Jiménez Díaz
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain