[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of human and simian malaria parasites in southern and southeastern Brazil. Earlier studies using chromosome inversions, isoenzymes and a number of molecular markers have suggested that An. cruzii is a species complex.
In this study, a multilocus approach using six loci, three circadian clock genes and three encoding ribosomal proteins, was carried out to investigate in more detail the genetic differentiation between the An. cruzii populations from Florianopolis--Santa Catarina (southern Brazil) and Itatiaia--Rio de Janeiro States (southeastern Brazil). The analyses were performed first comparing Florianopolis and Itatiaia, and then comparing the two putative sympatric incipient species from Itatiaia (Itatiaia A and Itatiaia B). The analysis revealed high FST values between Florianopolis and Itatiaia (considering Itatiaia A and B together) and also between the sympatric Itatiaia A and Itatiaia B, irrespective of their function. Also, using the IM program, no strong indication of migration was found between Florianopolis and Itatiaia (considering Itatiaia A and B together) using all loci together, but between Itatiaia A and Itatiaia B, the results show evidence of migration only in the direction of Itatiaia B.
The results of the multilocus analysis indicate that Florianopolis and Itatiaia represent different species of the An. cruzii complex that diverged around 0.6 Mya, and also that the Itatiaia sample is composed of two sympatric incipient species A and B, which diverged around 0.2 Mya. Asymmetric introgression was found between the latter two species despite strong divergence in some loci.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles cruzii is the primary human Plasmodium vector in southern and southeastern Brazil. The distribution of this mosquito follows the coast of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Previous studies indicated that An. cruzii is a complex of cryptic species.
A multilocus approach using six loci, three circadian clock genes and three encoding ribosomal proteins, was implemented to investigate in more detail the genetic differentiation between the An. cruzii populations from Santa Catarina (southern Brazil) and Bahia States (northeastern Brazil) that represent two sibling species. The analysis revealed very high FST values and fixed differences between the two An. cruzii sibling species in all loci, irrespective of their function. An Isolation with Migration model was fit to the data using the IM program. The results reveal no migration in either direction and allowed a rough estimate of the divergence time between the two sibling species.
Population genetics analysis of An. cruzii samples from two Brazilian localities using a multilocus approach confirmed that they represent two different sibling species in this complex. The results suggest that the two species have not exchanged migrants since their separation and that they possibly diverged between 1.1 and 3.6 million years ago, a period of intense climatic changes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae) has long been known as a vector of human and simian malaria parasites in southern and south-eastern Brazil. Previous studies have provided evidence that An. cruzii is a species complex, but the status of the different populations and the number of sibling species remains unclear. A recent analysis of the genetic differentiation of the timeless gene among An. cruzii populations from south and south-east Brazil has suggested that the population from Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro State (south-east Brazil), is in a process of incipient speciation.
A ~180 bp fragment of cpr, a gene encoding the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme involved in metabolic insecticide resistance and odorant clearance in insects, was used in this study as a molecular marker to analyse the divergence between five An. cruzii populations from south and south-east Brazil.
Analysis of the genetic differentiation in the cpr gene revealed very high FST values and fixed differences between Itatiaia and the other four populations studied (Florianópolis, Cananéia, Juquitiba and Santa Teresa). In addition, the data also provided preliminary evidence that seems to indicate the occurrence of two sympatric sibling species in Itatiaia.
Population genetics analysis of An. cruzii samples from different localities using a fragment of the cpr gene suggests that the Itatiaia sample represents at least one new sibling species in this complex.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii was the most important vector of human malaria in southern Brazil between 1930-1960. Nowadays it is still considered an important Plasmodium spp. vector in southern and south-eastern Brazil, incriminated for oligosymptomatic malaria. Previous studies based on the analysis of X chromosome banding patterns and inversion frequencies in An. cruzii populations from these areas have suggested the occurrence of three sibling species. In contrast, two genetically distinct groups among An. cruzii populations from south/south-east and north-east Brazil have been revealed by isoenzyme analysis. Therefore, An. cruzii remains unclear.
In this study, a partial sequence of the timeless gene (approximately 400 bp), a locus involved in the control of circadian rhythms, was used as a molecular marker to assess the genetic differentiation between An. cruzii populations from six geographically distinct areas of Brazil.
The timeless gene revealed that An. cruzii from Itaparica Island, Bahia State (north-east Brazil), constitutes a highly differentiated group compared with the other five populations from south and south-east Brazil. In addition, significant genetic differences were also observed among some of the latter populations.
Analysis of the genetic differentiation in the timeless gene among An. cruzii populations from different areas of Brazil indicated that this malaria vector is a complex of at least two cryptic species. The data also suggest that further work might support the occurrence of other siblings within this complex in Brazil.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During March 2005, 24 cases of acute human Chagas disease were detected in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, all of them related to the ingestion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated sugar cane juice. Following field studies allowed the isolation of 13 T. cruzi strains from humans, opossums (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris), and vectors (Triatoma tibiamaculata). The isolated strains were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and analysis of the spliced-leader and 24Salpha rRNA genes. The assays revealed that all strains isolated from humans belong to the TcII group but revealed a TcII variant pattern for the phosphoglucomutase enzyme. Strains isolated from opossums also showed a TcI profile in all analysis, but strains isolated from triatomines revealed a mixed TcI/TcII profile by MLEE. No indication of the presence of Trypanosoma rangeli was observed in any assay. Considering that mixed strains (TcI/TcII) were isolated from triatomines in an area without active vectorial transmission to humans and that all strains isolated from humans belong to the TcII group, our results show that T. cruzi TcI and TcII groups are circulating among reservoirs and vectors in southern Brazil and indicate that selection toward TcII group in humans may occur after ingestion of a mixed (TcI/TcII) T. cruzi population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The life cycle of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão 2001 was compared under laboratory conditions using two groups of the F1 generation obtained from field-collected bugs. Among the 100 nymphs weekly fed on mice (Group A) or chicken (Group B), 77% of Group A and 67% of Group B reached the adult stage, and the mean time from the first nymphal stage to adult was 190.08 +/- 28.31 days and 221.23 +/- 40.50, respectively. The average span in days for each stage per group and the number of blood meals required for each stage were also evaluated. The overall mortality rate was 23% and 33% for Groups A and B, respectively. The mean number of eggs laid per month in a three-month period was of 56.20, 51.70 and 73.20 for Group A, and 64.50, 53.50 and 38.71 for Group B. Despite the blood source, comparative analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the life cycle of T. klugi under laboratory conditions. Infection rates over 60% were observed for both Trypanosoma cruzi strains tested. Even revealing high infection rates of the hemolymph by T. rangeli strains, T. klugi revealed no salivary gland infections and was not able to transmit the parasite.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 07/2002; 97(4):583-7. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial). The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus) were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2002; 97(1):61-3. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the 1950s, three foci of Wuchereria bancrofti transmission were identified in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In Florianópolis, São José da Ponta Grossa and Barra da Laguna community treatment of bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was performed using two distinct approaches, without vector control or improvements in sanitation. In two of the three communities only microfilaraemic individuals were treated, while in Barra da Laguna the entire population received DEC treatment regardless of their infection status. In both cases, transmission of the parasite was blocked and no new cases were detected in all localities for up to 10 years. Recently, a new survey in São José da Ponta Grossa and Barra communities revealed no microfilaria-positive individuals, including residents that were positive in the 1950s. These data confirm that transmission of W. bancrofti was interrupted in Santa Catarina, and mass treatment appears to be more effective than treatment of microfilaraemic individuals only.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 01/2001; 5(12):848-54. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four Leishmania sp. samples were isolated from autochthonous human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. These strains were characterized using indirect immunofluorescence with a panel of Leishmania-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and by PCR amplification and hybridization assay of the mini-exon gene with group specific probes. The results obtained with the MAbs were in agreement with the genetic marker. Two isolates (MHOM/BR/89/JSC89-H1 and MHOM/BR/89/JSC89-H2) were identified as L. (Leishmania) amazonensis and two (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3 and MHOM/BR/97/LSC97-H4) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The southernmost autochthonous cases of ACL in Brazil are due to two different Leishmania sp. species, confirming the spreading of ACL on the American continent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 01/2000; 95(6):795-800. · 1.36 Impact Factor