[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many HIV prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) previously shown to be effective through rigorous outcome evaluation. Often, the implementing agency's setting or target population is different than those in the original implementation and evaluation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, in collaboration with internal and external partners, developed draft guidance to adapt an EBI to fit the cultural context, risk determinants, risk behaviors, and unique circumstances of the agency without competing with or contradicting the core elements and internal logic. The guidance described in this article provides a systematic approach to help agencies identify the most appropriate intervention for their target population and agency capacity, monitor the process, and evaluate the outcomes of the adapted intervention. This guidance, currently being piloted with five community-based organizations, will be revised and disseminated at the conclusion of project activities.
AIDS Education and Prevention 09/2006; 18(4 Suppl A):59-73. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implementation of evidence-based HIV/STD prevention interventions can play an important role in reducing HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. This article describes the development, implementation, and lessons learned of the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) project, a strategy funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to diffuse evidence-based, group- and community-level HIV/STD prevention interventions to health departments and community-based organizations nationwide. The article specifically provides an overview of the rationale, description, and theoretical foundation of the project; a review of marketing efforts, including assessment of interests, needs, and capacities relative to the project; a description of project products, their purpose, approach employed to develop them, and their use by implementers; a description of the project's training coordination functions and activities; technical assistance issues; an overview of process and outcome evaluation components; new developments in response to feedback; and a discussion of future directions for DEBI. Project successes and challenges are addressed to inform future efforts to diffuse prevention interventions.
AIDS Education and Prevention 09/2006; 18(4 Suppl A):5-20. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program, trained over 260 agencies on VOICES/VOCES between August 2003 and April 2005. ORC Macro conducted interviews with agency staff 3 months after receiving VOICES/VOCES training. This article discusses the diffusion of VOICES/VOCES; agencies' adoption, adaptation, and implementation of this intervention; and needs for ongoing proactive technical assistance (TA) for agencies to successfully integrate behavioral interventions into their programs. The vastmajority of agencies implemented VOICES/VOCES with fidelity to the core elements, and agencies successfully adapted the intervention to make it more appealing to target populations. TA is needed for interventions to be successfully adapted and implemented with fidelity to the core elements, and to ensure program sustainability. More effective interventions of short duration and minimum complexity to easily match with existing resources and conditions of agency capacity among HIV prevention providers in the community are needed.
AIDS Education and Prevention 09/2006; 18(4 Suppl A):184-97. · 1.59 Impact Factor