Christiaan S van Woerden

Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (11)48.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 displays a heterogeneous phenotype, likely to be affected by genetic and non-genetic factors, including timeliness of diagnosis and quality of care. As previous genotype-phenotype studies were hampered by limited patient numbers the European OxalEurope Consortium was constituted. This preliminary retrospective report is based on 526 patients of which 410 have the AGXT genotype defined. We grouped mutations by the predicted effect as null, missense leading to mistargeting (G170R), and other missense, and analyzed their phenotypic correlations. Median age of end-stage renal disease increased from 9.9 for 88 homozygous null patients, 11.5 for 42 heterozygous null/missense, 16.9 for 116 homozygous missense patients, 25.1 for 61 G170R/null patients, 31.2 for 32 G170R/missense patients, and 33.9 years for 71 homozygous G170R patients. The outcome of some recurrent missense mutations (p.I244T, p.F152I, p.M195R, p.D201E, p.S81L, p.R36C) and an unprecedented number of G170R homozygotes is described in detail. Diagnosis is still delayed and actions aimed at increasing awareness of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 are recommended. Thus, in addition to G170R, other causative mutations are associated with later onset of end-stage renal disease. The OxalEurope registry will provide necessary tools for characterizing those genetic and non-genetic factors through a combination of genetic, functional, and biostatistical approaches.Kidney International advance online publication, 2 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.222.
    Kidney International 07/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • S M van der Hoeven, C S van Woerden, J W Groothoff
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    ABSTRACT: Background Primary hyperoxaluria Type 1, an inherited disorder with increased endogenous oxalate production, leads to the development of urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Contrary to the general belief that patients diagnosed during adulthood experience a relatively mild course of disease, we were confronted with several cases of ESRD caused by previously undiagnosed primary hyperoxaluria.Methods To study renal and patient survival in relation with genotype, age at onset of disease and therapeutic delay, we performed a nationwide search among all Dutch nephrologists and paediatric nephrologists.ResultsOf the 79 included patients, 38% was diagnosed at an adult age. ESRD was present at the time of diagnosis in 26% of paediatric diagnosed patients versus 52% of adult-diagnosed patients (P = 0.021). Homozygosity for the pyridoxine-responsive p.Gly170Arg or p.Phe152Ile genotype was found in 26% of paediatric diagnosed patients versus 68% of adult-diagnosed patients (P < 0.001). Of homozygous p.Gly170Arg or p.Phe152Ile patients, 48% developed ESRD at a median age of 37 years, compared with 48% in those with other mutations at a median age of 0.5 years (P < 0.001). Of the 16 patients found through family screening, 81% had a preserved renal function.Conclusions The high prevalence of pyridoxine-responsive genotypes and favourabl prognosis of timely treatment warrant early diagnostic screening for primary hyperoxaluria Type 1 in patients with recurrent urolithiasis. This will preserve kidney function and prevent diagnosis of adult diagnosed patients in ESRD.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria Type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. The disorder results in overproduction and excessive urinary excretion of oxalate, causing recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. As glomerular filtration rate declines due to progressive renal involvement, oxalate accumulates leading to systemic oxalosis. The diagnosis is based on clinical and sonographic findings, urine oxalate assessment, enzymology and/or DNA analysis. Early initiation of conservative treatment (high fluid intake, pyridoxine, inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization) aims at maintaining renal function. In chronic kidney disease Stages 4 and 5, the best outcomes to date were achieved with combined liver-kidney transplantation.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2012; 27(5):1729-36. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Clinica Chimica Acta 10/2007; 384(1-2):184-5. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Chemistry 09/2007; 53(8):1553-5. · 7.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are characterized by a generalized loss of peroxisomal functions caused by deficient peroxisomal assembly. Clinical presentation and survival are heterogeneous. Although most peroxisomal enzymes are unstable in the cytosol of peroxisome-deficient cells of ZSD patients, a few enzymes remain stable among which alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). Its deficiency causes primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1, MIM 259900), an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism characterized by hyperoxaluria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. Despite the normal level of AGT activity in ZSD patients, hyperoxaluria has been reported in several ZSD patients. We observed the unexpected occurrence of renal stones in a cohort of ZSD patients. This led us to perform a study in this cohort to determine the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in ZSDs and to find clinically relevant clues that correlate with the urinary oxalate load. We reviewed medical charts of 31 Dutch ZSD patients with prolonged survival (>1 year). Urinary oxalate excretion was assessed in 23 and glycolate in 22 patients. Hyperoxaluria was present in 19 (83%), and hyperglycolic aciduria in 14 (64%). Pyridoxine treatment in six patients did not reduce the oxalate excretion as in some PH1 patients. Renal involvement with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis was present in five of which one developed end-stage renal disease. The presence of hyperoxaluria, potentially leading to severe renal involvement, was statistically significant correlated with the severity of neurological dysfunction. ZSD patients should be screened by urinalysis for hyperoxaluria and renal ultrasound for nephrocalcinosis in order to take timely measures to prevent renal insufficiency.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2006; 88(4):346-50. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a congenital defect in glyoxylate metabolism caused by a deficiency in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme known as alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). The deficiency is due to mutations in the AGXT gene, located on chromosome 2q37.3, and results in the conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate. The crystallisation of oxalate with calcium results in symptoms varying from a solitary kidney stone to end-stage renal disease with systemic oxalosis. The diagnosis is based on increased oxalate and glycolate excretion in the urine, reduced AGT activity in liver tissue, and confirmed mutations in the AGXT gene. Over 50 disease-causing mutations have been identified in PH1, which are associated with a wide range of effects on the AGT enzyme. Homozygous Gly170Arg or Phei52Ile mutations are associated with a reduction in urinary oxalate excretion upon pyridoxine administration and long-term preservation of renal function when treatment is initiated in a timely manner. Homozygous 33insC and Gly82Arg mutations result in a much poorer prognosis. Mutational analysis of the AGXT gene in PH1 patients can be a useful tool for establishing the diagnosis and choosing an appropriate therapeutic strategy.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 08/2006; 150(30):1669-72.
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    ABSTRACT: The 625G>A variant of the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene is considered to confer susceptibility for developing 'clinical SCAD deficiency' and appears to be common in the general population. To determine the frequency of the 625G>A variant in The Netherlands, we analysed 1036 screening cards of 5- to 8-day-old newborns and found 5.5% homozygous and 31.3% heterozygous for the 625G>A variant. An increased blood/plasma C4-carnitine concentration is considered to be one of the biochemical characteristics of SCAD deficiency. To explore the correlation of C4-carnitine levels with the 625G>A variant, we determined the C4-carnitine concentration, as well as the ratio of C4- to free carnitine, in blood spots from newborns, who were detected as homozygous, heterozygous or noncarriers for the gene variant. No significant differences were found between these groups. Our study demonstrates a high frequency of the 625G>A SCAD gene variant in the Dutch population, but no correlation to significantly increased C4-carnitine levels in blood spots taken between the 5th and 8th days of life. This latter observation might be the result of the relatively late timing of neonatal screening in our country, implying that fatty acid oxidation disorders may be missed at that stage. If the 625G>A variant is associated with clinical SCAD deficiency, the high frequency of the variant suggests a possible involvement of SCAD deficiency in the pathogenesis of common disorders, probably in relation to other genetic and/or environmental factors. However, homozygosity for the 625G>A variant might be only a biochemical phenomenon, representing a 'nondisease'.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 06/2005; 28(4):557-62. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism with an extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although over 50 disease-causing mutations have been identified, the relationship between genotype and clinical outcome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine this association in order to find clues for improvement of patient care. AGXT mutation analysis and assessment of biochemical characteristics and clinical outcome were performed on patients from a Dutch PH1 cohort. Thirty-three of a cohort of 57 PH1 patients, identified in The Netherlands over a period of 30 years, were analyzed. Ten different mutations were found. The most common mutations were the Gly170Arg, Phe152Ile, and the 33insC mutations, with an allele frequency of 43%, 19%, and 15%, respectively. Homozygous Gly170Arg and Phe152Ile mutations were associated with pyridoxine responsiveness and a preserved renal function over time when treatment was timely initiated. All patients homozygous for the 33insC mutation had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before the first year of age. In two unrelated patients, a new Val336Asp mutation was found coupled with the Gly170Arg mutation on the minor allele. We also found 3 patients homozygous for a novel Gly82Arg mutation with adverse outcome in 2 of them. Early detection of Gly170Arg and Phe152Ile mutations in PH1 has important clinical implications because of their association with pyridoxine responsiveness and clinical outcome. The association of a homozygous 33insC mutation with severe infantile ESRD, resulting in early deaths in 2 out of 3 cases, warrants a choice for prenatal diagnostics in affected families.
    Kidney International 09/2004; 66(2):746-52. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disease. To date the relationship between biochemical parameters and outcome is unclear. We therefore undertook a national cohort study on biochemical and clinical parameters and outcome in PH1. Review of medical charts of all Dutch PH1 patients, who were identified by sending questionnaires to all Dutch nephrologists for children and adults. Fifty-seven patients were identified. The prevalence and incidence rates were 2.9/10(6) and 0.15/10(6)/year, respectively. Median age at diagnosis was 7.3 years (range 0-57). Seventeen (30%) patients were older than 18 years at time of diagnosis, of whom 10 (59%) presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), in contrast to only nine (23%) of those aged under 18 years. Median age at initial symptoms was 6.0 years (range 0-50). In four of nine patients with infantile PH1, normal renal function was preserved after a median follow-up of 7.7 years (range 0.1-16). Progression to renal insufficiency was associated with the presence of nephrocalcinosis, as assessed by ultrasound (relative risk=1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4) and with pyridoxine-unresponsiveness (relative risk=2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.2) but not with age at presentation, the extent of hyperoxaluria, or AGT activity. No apparent nephrocalcinosis was found in five of the 19 patients who presented with ESRD. Although more than one-half of the PH1 patients have symptoms under the age of 10 years, PH1 can present at any age. In adults, PH1 presents predominantly with ESRD, which may be due to misinterpretation of early symptoms. Although nephrocalcinosis is correlated with development of renal insufficiency, the latter can occur even in the absence of nephrocalcinosis. Pyridoxine sensitivity is associated with better outcome in PH1.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2003; 18(2):273-9. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) and mevalonic aciduria (MA) are two autosomal recessive disorders that both are caused by a deficient activity of the enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK) due to mutations in the encoding gene (MVK). The most frequently occurring MVK mutation, V377I (1129G>A), has been identified exclusively in HIDS patients. Other common mutations have been associated with both HIDS and MA. To estimate the incidence of MK deficiency in the Netherlands, we determined the carrier frequency of the V377I mutation in genomic DNA extracted from anonymised newborn screening cards by PCR-RFLP. We found 14 carriers among 2138 analysed samples (1 : 153). Based on the V377I allele frequency of 42% in patients diagnosed with MK deficiency, the carrier frequency of any MVK mutation in the Dutch population can be calculated as 1 : 65. This predicts a disease incidence between 1 in 5196 and 1 in 53 656, which is far more than actually observed. Although under-diagnosis of patients with MK deficiency remains possible, this discrepancy probably is due to a reduced penetrance of V377I homozygosity. Analysis of the distribution of the V377I allele within patients carrying MVK mutations revealed that this was not according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle, most probably due to an under-representation of V377I homozygotes in HIDS. Homozygotes for V377I might exhibit a much milder phenotype of MK deficiency or no disease-phenotype at all.
    European Journal of HumanGenetics 02/2003; 11(2):196-200. · 4.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

202 Citations
48.99 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • Academic Medical Center (AMC)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • Hospices Civils de Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands