Carlos Nordt

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (42)123.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have sought to identify ethnic- and gender-specific differences in HIV prevalence among heroin users receiving opioid maintenance treatment in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Harm Reduction Journal 08/2014; 11(1):23. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restricted government budgets are forcing countries to implement more efficient health measures. Unlike in somatic medicine, the process of evaluating payment systems in psychiatry in Switzerland is ongoing. A pilot approach in one psychiatric hospital, here called "new remuneration system (NRS)", was introduced to better control length of stay (LOS) by combining a lump sum with degressive daily rates. This is a first evaluation of the NRS in terms of a reduction of the LOS, and the prevention of early readmissions by analysing meaningful outcome categories.
    Swiss medical weekly. 01/2014; 144:w13991.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although antidepressants play a major role in the treatment of patients with depression, it is unclear which specific antidepressants are more efficacious than others. This study aims to analyze the relationship between several antidepressant substances and the time to readmission as well as the probability of being in hospital in a given week by using prescription data. Methods: The database was health-insurance claim data from the new Federal States in Germany. The analysis consisted of all patients with unipolar depression at their index admission in 2007 (N = 1803). Patients were followed up for 2 years after discharge from index hospitalization. Statistical analyses were conducted by discrete-time hazards models and general estimation equation models, accounting for various predictors. Results: Of all prescribed antidepressant substances, sertraline was related to an increased time to readmission by 37% and to a reduction in the probability of being in hospital in a given week by 40%. However, it was prescribed to only about 5% of the patients. Conclusion: In this study, only sertraline appeared to have clinical and economic advantages. It is remarkable that just a minority of patients received sertraline in our study, thus differing from the prescription pattern in the US.
    Frontiers in Public Health 01/2014; 2:40.
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    ABSTRACT: The largest European multicenter randomized controlled trial to date on the effectiveness of supported employment (EQOLISE) was conducted in six European centres until 2005. It revealed that the intervention "individual placement and support" was more effective than conventional prevocational training services. The aim of this investigation was to assess the Zurich sample (individuals with schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorders) 24 months after termination of the EQOLISE trial in terms of working situation, income, and hospital admissions. More favorable outcomes concerning these parameters were assumed for the intervention group. Assessment of the working situation and psychiatric hospitalizations since the end as well as the development of salaries since the start of EQOLISE. Comparisons between groups and illustration of incomes using a random coefficient model were conducted. 50 % of the original sample could be assessed. All subjects who worked in competitive workplaces at the end of EQOLISE were met in a different situation. No differences were found concerning hospital admissions. The mean monthly income considerably increased during EQOLISE and decreased during the third year. At the time of follow-up it was approximately at the same level as the slightly increased control group. This investigation points at limited sustainability of supported employment among individuals with severe mental disorders in terms of maintenance of employment and income if the job coaching is not continued.
    Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation: Organ der Gesellschaft Österreichischer Nervenärzte und Psychiater 10/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in the pathophysiology of tics. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. METHODS: For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. RESULTS: The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients' subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.
    BMC Neurology 10/2012; 12(1):120. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vocational integration of people with mental illness is poor despite their willingness to work. The 'Individual Placement and Support' (IPS) model which emphasises rapid and direct job placement and continuing support to patient and employer has proven to be the most effective vocational intervention programme. Various studies have shown that every second patient with severe mental illness was able to find competitive employment within 18 months. However, the goal of taking up employment within two months was rarely achieved. Thus, we aim to test whether the new concept of limited placement budgets increases the effectiveness of IPS. METHODS: Six job coaches in six out-patients psychiatric clinics in the Canton of Zurich support unemployed patients of their clinic who seek competitive employment. Between June 2010 and May 2011 patients (N=100) are randomly assigned to three different placement budgets of 25h, 40h, or 55h working hours of job coaches. Support lasts two years for those who find a job. The intervention ends for those who fail to find competitive employment when the respective placement budgets run out. The primary outcome measure is the time between study inclusion and first competitive employment that lasted three months or longer. Over a period of three years interviews are carried out every six months to measure changes in motivation, stigmatization, social network and social support, quality of life, job satisfaction, financial situation, and health conditions. Cognitive and social-cognitive tests are conducted at baseline to control for confounding variables. DISCUSSION: This study will show whether the effectiveness of IPS can be increased by the new concept of limited placement budgets. It will also be examined whether competitive employment leads in the long term to an improvement of mental illness, to a transfer of the psychiatric support system to private and vocational networks, to an increase in financial independence, to a reduction of perceived and internalized stigma, and to an increase in quality of life and job satisfaction of the patient. In addition, factors connected with fast competitive employment and holding that job down in the long term are being examined (motivation, stigmatization, social and financial situation).Trial registerISRCTN89670872.
    BMC Psychiatry 10/2012; 12(1):165. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Its pharmacological treatment is often a challenge because of the so-called tachyphylactic effects. Aripiprazole has been reported to be effective in small case series with short follow-up periods. In a retrospective analysis, we assessed the effect of off-label treatments with aripiprazole in 20 adult patients (mean age 27.4) divided in a group of severely [67 Yale Global Tourette Severity Scale (YGTTS)-total] and moderately (43.3 YGTTS-total) affected patients. TS patients were treated with aripiprazole (mean 11.8 mg daily) and followed for up to 56 months. Applying a random coefficient model, we found a significant benefit resulting from treatment with aripiprazole. This effect was larger in the severely affected patient group in comparison with the moderately affected patient group. The effect was stable over a time period up to 56 months. Aripiprazole, a neuroleptic drug of the third generation with a partial D(2) -agonism is effective in moderately and severely affected adult Tourette patients. We add to the current knowledge through our data extending the follow-up interval up to a maximum of 56 months. All available clinical data strongly support the initiation of a double-blind placebo or other neuroleptic substance controlled trial.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 06/2012; 27(4):364-9. · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • B Lay, C Nordt, W Rössler
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    ABSTRACT: The use of coercive measures in psychiatry is still poorly understood. Most empirical research has been limited to compulsory admission and to risk factors on an individual patient level. This study addresses three coercive measures and the role of predictive factors at both patient and institutional levels. Using the central psychiatric register that covers all psychiatric hospitals in Canton Zurich (1.3 million people), Switzerland, we traced all inpatients in 2007 aged 18-70 (n = 9698). We used GEE models to analyse variation in rates between psychiatric hospitals. Overall, we found quotas of 24.8% involuntary admissions, 6.4% seclusion/restraint and 4.2% coerced medication. Results suggest that the kind and severity of mental illness are the most important risk factors for being subjected to any form of coercion. Variation across the six psychiatric hospitals was high, even after accounting for risk factors on the patient level suggesting that centre effects are an important source of variability. However, effects of the hospital characteristics 'size of the hospital', 'length of inpatient stay', and 'work load of the nursing staff' were only weak ('bed occupancy rate' was not statistically significant). The significant variation in use of coercive measures across psychiatric hospitals needs further study.
    European Psychiatry 02/2011; 26(4):244-51. · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Carlos Nordt, Rudolf Stohler
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the combined effects of street-level law enforcement and substitution treatment programs on drug-related mortality, taking into account prevalence of heroin use and changes in injecting behaviour. Time trend analysis using annual police reports and case register data of opioid substitution treatments in Switzerland, 1975-2007. Drug-related mortality increased during times of more intense street-level law enforcement [odds ratio (OR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-1.51], and the number of drug-related deaths predicted the number of heroin possession offences 2 years later (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). Substitution treatment had a protective effect on drug-related mortality (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18-0.30). Surprisingly, the number of drug-related deaths was substantially biased by an oscillation period of 14 years (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.32). Our analysis revealed that the amount of police resources allocated to law enforcement was determined rationally, however, on biased grounds and with untoward consequences. Substitution treatment of heroin users reduced drug-related mortality in the long run, but different factors masked its impact for several years. Therefore, the introduction-or the expansion-of opioid substitution treatment programs should not be promoted with the argument of an immediate reduction of drug-related deaths in a country.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2010; 29(5):540-5. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Next to socio-economic factors, subjective need, political and health economiaspects play an important role in the planning of psychiatric structures. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of a reduction of inpatient capacities fort the usage of psychiatric inpatient care. The admissions of inpatients from a region in which the inpatient service has been replaced by the inpatient service from another region in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, has been analysed. Within the first two years after the omission of the service the admissions of patients with social health insurance policies from the relative sector decreased significantly as compared to the rest of the canton. In contrast to this, admissions of patients with private health insurances from the relative region and from the rest of the canton increased in a similar way. It can be stated that in the first time after a reduction of inpatient capacities patients with social health insurance policies do not use inpatient alternatives even when these are easily accessible. This finding is meaningful for the arrangement of alternative offers for this very large group of patients in psychiatric health care planning.
    Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation: Organ der Gesellschaft Österreichischer Nervenärzte und Psychiater 01/2010; 24(1):27-32. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, admission rates to psychiatric inpatient care have steadily increased, whilst the number of beds has progressively decreased, at least in german-speaking countries. A better understanding of risk factors concerning psychiatric readmissions is indispensable in order to avoid unnecessary inpatient treatment. The aim of our study was to test the influence of various clinical and social factors on the time to readmission. We analysed data of an observational study considering especially vulnerable patients with schizophrenia (N = 103). We applied multivariate time-hazards models (survival analysis) to examine the predictors of the time to readmission within 12 months. Independent variables were either time-varying (e.g. Needs for care Assessment Scale (NCA)) or time-invariant (e.g. age). About 50% of the patients were readmitted during the observation period, many of them within the first few weeks. In the final models clinical needs, and a social need increased the risk of readmission, whereas the use of neuroleptic medication reduced the risk. There was an interaction effect between social support and time. Both, clinical and social factors influence the risk of psychiatric readmission. Therefore, the prevention of readmissions should focus on the patients' skills to manage his/her illness and on the social support that the patients receive.
    Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation: Organ der Gesellschaft Österreichischer Nervenärzte und Psychiater 01/2010; 24(4):243-51. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    Carlos Nordt, Karin Landolt, Rudolf Stohler
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    ABSTRACT: : Regional incidence trends in regular heroin use are important for assessing the effectiveness of drug policies and for forecasting potential future epidemics. To estimate incidence trends we applied both the more traditional Reporting Delay Adjustment (RDA) method as well as the new and less data demanding General Inclusion Function (GIF) method. The latter describes the probability of an individual being in substitution treatment depending on time since the onset of heroin use. Data on year of birth, age at first regular heroin use and date of admission to and cessation of substitution treatment was available from 1997 to 2006 for 11 of the 26 regions (cantons) of Switzerland. For the remaining cantons, we used the number of patients in 5-year age group categories published in annual statistics between 1999 and 2006. Application of the RDA and GIF methods on data from the whole of Switzerland produced equivalent incidence trends. The GIF method revealed similar incidence trends in all of the Swiss cantons. Imputing a constant age of onset of 21 years resulted in almost equal trends to those obtained when real age of onset was used. The cantonal incidence estimates revealed that in the mid 80s there were high incidence rates in various regions distributed throughout all of the linguistic areas in Switzerland. During the following years these regional differences disappeared and the incidence of regular heroin use stabilized at a low level throughout the country. It has been demonstrated that even with incomplete data the GIF method allows to calculate accurate regional incidence trends.
    Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 07/2009; 4:14. · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • Carlos Nordt, Rudolf Stohler
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    ABSTRACT: There still are concerns about unwanted effects of harm-reduction measures that may lead to an increasing number of new heroin users. Furthermore, it is thought that the admission of a substantial proportion of heroin users to methadone treatments reduces the demand on the heroin market and thus results in a lower price for street heroin. And finally, the intensity of police activity in the drug field may also affect prices for street heroin. As incidence of regular heroin use over more than a decade is rarely known elsewhere, we examined the Zurich experience between 1980 and 2005 by triangulating published and unpublished data, concerning heroin price, heroin purity level, heroin seizures and drug offences. This time period encompasses the time before and after the introduction of low-threshold methadone treatment in 1991. We found a steep peak of heroin incidence in 1990. The street price of heroin already declined from 700 to 60 Swiss Francs during the 80s. The number of heroin consumptions possession offences reported by the police increased since 1991 and peaked in 1997, 2 years after the closure of the last open drug scene. The introduction of low-threshold methadone treatment has not resulted in lower heroin prices and the increased police activity during the 90s has not led to higher heroin prices, even though the higher police activity in the late 90s may have contributed to the prevention of a re-establishment of open drug scenes. In conclusion, we did not find a close relationship between street prices of heroin, police activity, and incidence of problematic heroin use.
    The International journal on drug policy 05/2009; 20(6):497-501. · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Carlos Nordt, Rudolf Stohler
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of differing drug policies are difficult to evaluate, because time trends in the spread of heroin use, the most problematic illicit drug world-wide, are unknown in almost all countries. We aimed to develop a simple method to estimate these dynamics with data that can be gathered from patients in substitution treatment within a single day. We tested the assumption that being in substitution treatment on any day depends solely upon individual time since onset of regular heroin use (following a 'general inclusion function'). We used data from the case register for substitution treatments in the canton of Zurich (1992--2004), comprising 9518 patients, to model a 'general inclusion function'. Applying this function, we calculated 30 incidence curves for heroin dependence, each with data of one of 30 randomly chosen treatment days between 1992 and 2004. Incidence modelling led to 30 similar curves, and therefore our hypothesis was corroborated. Additionally, our approach also revealed a restricted access to substitution treatment in the early 1990s and a decline in demand due to the introduction of heroin-assisted treatment from 1994 onwards. In the canton of Zurich, the probability of being in substitution treatment can be described by a 'general inclusion function', and therefore dynamics of heroin epidemics can be estimated based on data of a single treatment day. Adaptation of our function to areas with a more restricted access to substitution treatment may permit these estimations also in other regions or countries. Thus, our approach facilitates the urgently needed assessment of the effects of different drug policies.
    Addiction 05/2008; 103(4):591-7. · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • Barbara Lay, Carlos Nordt, Wulf Rössler
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    ABSTRACT: The number of psychiatric beds has declined considerably in many countries over the past decades. Long-term studies on the impact of these health care changes for the severely mentally ill, however, are still scarce. This epidemiological study investigates the use of inpatient psychiatric services by people with schizophrenia, compared to that by people with other mental disorders. We used psychiatric register data of the Swiss canton Zurich to establish the annual treatment prevalence in the period 1977-2004. For patients with psychoses, the length of inpatient episodes decreased by half. The annual number of inpatient admissions doubled. The proportion of schizophrenia patients, which accounted for 36%-41% of all inpatient treatments up to 1993, dropped to 20% in 2004, while that of other psychoses remained about the same (8%-10%) throughout the study period. This contrasts with a 2-3 fold increase in other patient groups. The annual treatment prevalence for people with schizophrenia declined from 7.3 to 2.2 per 10000 population since the 1990s and affected patients of all ages and of both sexes equally. The treatment prevalence for other psychoses remained virtually unchanged (1.3 per 10000). For all other mental disorders, there was an up to twofold increase. The study suggests that the downsizing of psychiatric hospitals has resulted in a far-reaching redistribution of overall inpatient treatment resources. The considerable decrease in inpatient treatment for people with schizophrenia emphasizes the need to further investigate the current state of coverage for and the appropriateness of health care available to this patient group.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2008; 97(1-3):68-78. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a large empirical basis for the importance of social networks and support for people with a mental illness. However, only a few studies have examined the predictors, changes and correlations of these constructs within a longitudinal framework. To analyze changes in social network diversity as measured by the number of social roles and perceived social support over the course of three years after a psychiatric hospitalization while controlling for sociodemographic and clinical variables. A further aim was to inquire whether some social roles are perceived as being more supportive than others. Random coefficient models were applied to the data of a longitudinal study on the life circumstances of people with affective disorders or schizophrenia (N = 183). The majority of participants had relatives, friends and co-workers, while a markedly smaller proportion had a spouse/partner or children. Social network diversity increased during the time period observed while the perception of social support did not change. Being male, without a job (competitive or sheltered), or having a low income predicted less diverse networks. Partners and friends were perceived as most supportive. Persons without a close friendship perceived less overall support, but only at baseline (hospitalization), while persons with a job on the competitive labor market felt better supported. Social disintegration in the course of mental illness that is found in some studies has no equivalent in our study in what concerns network diversity and perceived support. According to our results, characteristics of vocational and economic integration are of much greater relevance, as they enhance or hinder access to social participation.
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry 12/2007; 53(6):564-75. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to high unemployment rates, people with mental illness are at risk of poverty and are deprived of the social and psychological functions of work, such as the provision of social support, structuring of time, and self-esteem, with a negative effect on their perceived quality of life (QoL). Two distinct processes are held responsible for the low work force participation of people with mental illness: 'Social underachievement' and 'social decline'. Social underachievement signifies that, due to early illness onset, the educational attainment of people with mental illness is low and entry to the labor market fails. Social decline, on the other hand, describes the loss of competitive employment after illness onset, followed by prolonged periods of unemployment and difficulties to re-enter the labor market. This study examines how social underachievement and decline are reflected in the course of vocational status, income, and QoL of people with severe mental illness in the years after a psychiatric admission in a naturalistic longitudinal design. A total of 176 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders were interviewed during an index hospitalization in two large psychiatric hospitals in Zurich. Follow-up interviews were conducted 12 and 30 months after. Random coefficient models (multilevel models) were used to examine simultaneously the predictors and course of the variables of interest. A low number of psychiatric hospitalizations, a higher educational degree, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and years of work experience predicted a higher vocational status. Vocational status decreased in first-admission participants with prolonged hospitalizations during the follow-up period. Income did not change over time and was positively influenced by a higher age of illness onset, competitive employment, higher education, and not having had a longer hospitalization recently. Subjective QoL significantly improved and was rated higher by people with any kind of employment than by participants without a job. Participants with an affective disorder, those with few hospitalizations but a recent inpatient stay of longer duration, showed lower QoL. Including employment issues early in treatment is especially important for people with an early illness onset and those with more severe forms of psychiatric disorder. A life course perspective enhances the understanding of patients' vocational potential and needs for support.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 11/2007; 65(7):1420-9. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Barbara Lay, Carlos Nordt, Wulf Rössler
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    ABSTRACT: This epidemiological study aims to assess the utilisation of inpatient psychiatric services by immigrants. Specifically, we address the question of gender-specific differences in immigrants and compare the population-based rates of males and females from different countries of origin. We analysed inpatient admission rates from a defined catchment area over a 6-year period by means of psychiatric register data. Poisson regression analysis was used to model effects of gender, age and country group (immigrants grouped into six categories according to their country of origin). Of the total of 28,511 subjects consecutively referred to psychiatric inpatient treatment, 4,814 were foreign nationals (16.9%). Among immigrants the proportion of female inpatients (38.7%) was far lower than in the general population (45.6%; equal proportion of female-to-total among Swiss inpatients). Immigrants were 37.4 years old on average at index admission (Swiss people: 46.3 years), but there were considerable differences across country groups. We found three groups with particularly high admission rates: male immigrants originating from Turkey, Eastern European and 'Other' countries (rates >6 per 1,000 population/year). These were admitted as inpatients at far higher rates than females from the same countries. In women, there was no immigrant group utilising inpatient treatment at a higher level than Swiss females. The rates of inpatient admission in males and females was almost equal among the Swiss (4.3 per 1,000), as was the case for immigrants from Southern, Western/Northern Europe and former Yugoslavia, although on a lower level (2.26-3.15 per 1,000). Regression analysis further suggests that country effects and age effects are different for males and females, and age effects are specific to the country of origin. These gender- and interaction effects point to inequalities in psychiatric service use in people with different migration background. Further research is needed, particularly to understand the reasons for the markedly different gender-specific utilisation of psychiatric services by some immigrant groups.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 03/2007; 42(3):229-36. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies reveal poor knowledge about mental illness in the general population and stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness. However, it is unknown whether mental health professionals hold fewer stigmatizing attitudes than the general population. A survey was conducted of the attitudes of mental health professionals (n = 1073) and members of the public (n = 1737) toward mental illness and their specific reaction toward a person with and without psychiatric symptoms ("non-case" as a reference category). Psychiatrists had more negative stereotypes than the general population. Mental health professionals accepted restrictions toward people with mental illness 3 times less often than the public. Most professionals were able to recognize cases of schizophrenia and depression, but 1 in 4 psychiatrists and psychologists also considered the non-case as mentally ill. The social distance toward both major depression and the non-case was lower than toward schizophrenia. However, in this regard, there was no difference between professionals and the public. The study concludes that the better knowledge of mental health professionals and their support of individual rights neither entail fewer stereotypes nor enhance the willingness to closely interact with mentally ill people.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 11/2006; 32(4):709-14. · 8.49 Impact Factor
  • C Lauber, C Nordt, W Rössler
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 09/2006; 114(2):145-6; author reply 146-7. · 4.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

767 Citations
123.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2013
    • University of Zurich
      • Institut für Sozial-und Präventivmedizin
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2012
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2000–2010
    • Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland