ABSTRACT: Control of intracranial hypertension (ICH) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is standard care. However, predicting risk for ICH is essential to balance risks and benefits of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. Current recommendations for ICP monitoring in pediatric trauma patients are extrapolated from adult studies.
This retrospective study evaluated 299 children admitted to Primary Children's Medical Center with moderate to severe TBI. ICP monitors were used in 120. Demographic, injury, and admission computed tomography (CT) scan characteristics were compared with determine factors associated with monitoring among those with less severe head CT findings. Among all monitored patients, clinical and radiographic features were compared for early ICH defined as any sustained ICP ≥20 mm Hg in the first 24 hours.
Factors independently associated with monitoring children with Marshall I or II scores included presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio [OR], 21.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-114.7) and greater injury severity scores (ISS) (OR, 9.5 [95% CI, 2.9-31.1] for ISS 21 to 29 and OR, 14.3 [95% CI, 4.3-50.5] for ISS >29 compared with ISS <21). Among those with a normal head CT, 9 of 68 had an ICP monitor placed because of the inability to localize pain. Of these, 78% (7 of 9) had early ICH. Among monitored patients radiologic and clinical features of injury severity were not useful to distinguish risk for early ICH.
Among children with severe TBI, a normal head CT does not exclude ICH. Need for ICP monitoring should be determined by depth of coma in addition to radiographic imaging.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 08/2011; 72(1):263-70.
The American journal of cardiology 05/2009; 103(7):1042. · 3.58 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common and multifactorial. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) in Utah may have lower cardiac mortality than other Utahns and the US population. Although the LDS proscription of smoking likely contributes to lower cardiac risk, it is unknown whether other shared behaviors also contribute. This study evaluated potential CAD-associated effects of fasting. Patients (n(1) = 4,629) enrolled in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study registry (1994 to 2002) were evaluated for the association of religious preference with CAD diagnosis (> or = 70% coronary stenosis using angiography) or no CAD (normal coronaries, <10% stenosis). Consequently, another set of patients (n(2) = 448) were surveyed (2004 to 2006) for the association of behavioral factors with CAD, with routine fasting (i.e., abstinence from food and drink) as the primary variable. Secondary survey measures included proscription of alcohol, tea, and coffee; social support; and religious worship patterns. In population 1 (initial), 61% of LDS and 66% of all others had CAD (adjusted [including for smoking] odds ratio [OR] 0.81, p = 0.009). In population 2 (survey), fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD (64% vs 76% CAD; OR 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.87, p = 0.010), and this remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.81, p = 0.007). Fasting was also associated with lower diabetes prevalence (p = 0.048). In regression models entering other secondary behavioral measures, fasting remained significant with a similar effect size. In conclusion, not only proscription of tobacco, but also routine periodic fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD.
The American Journal of Cardiology 10/2008; 102(7):814-819. · 3.37 Impact Factor