[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and prolonged febrile seizures (pFS) are common neurologic problems that occur during childhood. However, there is insufficient evidence from experimental studies to conclude that pFS directly induces hippocampal injury. We studied cognitive function and histological changes in a rat model and investigated which among pFS, HIE, or a dual pathologic effect is most detrimental to the health of children.
A rat model of HIE at postnatal day (PD) 7 and a pFS model at PD10 were used. Behavioral and cognitive functions were investigated by means of weekly open field tests from postnatal week (PW) 3 to PW7, and by daily testing with the Morris water maze test at PW8. Pathological changes in the hippocampus were observed in the control, pFS, HIE, and HIE+pFS groups at PW9.
The HIE priming group showed a seizure-prone state. The Morris water maze test revealed a decline in cognitive function in the HIE and HIE+pFS groups compared with the pFS and control groups. Additionally, the HIE and HIE+pFS groups showed significant hippocampal neuronal damage, astrogliosis, and volume loss, after maturation. The pFS alone induced minimal hippocampal neuronal damage without astrogliosis or volume loss.
Our findings suggest that pFS alone causes no considerable memory or behavioral impairment, or cellular change. In contrast, HIE results in lasting memory impairment and neuronal damage, gliosis, and tissue loss. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the developing brain concerning conditions caused by HIE or pFS.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 07/2015; 58(1):22-9. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2015.58.1.22 · 0.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many parents express worries about potential negative side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AED) on cognition, behavior, mood, and academic achievement. We aimed to evaluate parents' subjective feelings about cognitive or behavioral changes in their children and their quality of life after antiepileptic drug (AED) discontinuation.
A modified questionnaire based on the Korean-Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy and the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist was answered by parents whose children were seizure-free over the course of 1 month after AED discontinuation. All children were seizure-free for at least 2 years before AED withdrawal.
Fifty-eight eligible patients (mean age, 14.1 ± 4.5 years) were examined. Except valproate in cognition (p = 0.03), parents did not feel significant change after discontinuation of different drugs. They felt improvement of behavior in generalized epilepsy (p = 0.04) and better quality of life in children less than 6 year of age at diagnosis of epilepsy (p = 0.02).
We propose that factors such as earlier age at diagnosis of epilepsy or type of epilepsy might influence parents' subjective feelings about their children's well-being after drug discontinuation, rather than the drug itself.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) results from numerous mutations in the GJB1 gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin32 (Cx32) and is one of the commonest forms of inherited neuropathy. Owing to the expression of Cx32 not only in Schwann cells but also in oligodendrocytes, a subset of CMT1X patients develops central nervous system (CNS) clinical manifestations in addition to peripheral neuropathy. While most GJB1 mutations appear to cause peripheral neuropathy through loss of Cx32 function, the cellular mechanisms underlying the CNS manifestations remain controversial. A novel start codon GJB1 mutation (p.Met1Ile) has been found in a CMT1X patient presenting with recurrent episodes of transient encephalomyelitis without apparent signs of peripheral neuropathy. In order to clarify the functional consequences of this mutation, we examined the cellular expression of two different constructs cloned from genomic DNA including the mutated start codon. None of the cloned constructs resulted in detectable expression of Cx32 by immunocytochemistry or immunoblot, although mRNA was produced at normal levels. Furthermore, co-expression with the other major oligodendrocyte connexin, Cx47, had no negative effect on GJ formation by Cx47. Finally, lysosomal and proteasomal inhibition in cells expressing the start codon mutant constructs failed to recover any detection of Cx32 as a result of impaired protein degradation. Our results indicate that the Cx32 start codon mutation is equivalent to a complete loss of the protein with failure of translation, although transcription is not impaired. Thus, complete loss of Cx32 function is sufficient to produce CNS dysfunction with clinical manifestations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The aim of this study was to identify the different influencing patterns of demographic and epilepsy-related variables on various aspects of psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy.
Five hundred ninety-eight patients with pediatric epilepsy between the ages of 4 and 18 years (boys = 360, 60% and girls = 238, 40%) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed the Social Maturity Scale (SMS), the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), and the Korean version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (K-QOLCE) to assess daily living function, behavior, and quality of life. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) was completed by clinicians to assess general adaptive function. Demographic variables, such as age and sex of child, and epilepsy-related clinical variables, including seizure type, seizure frequency, duration of epilepsy, and number of medications, were obtained from medical records.
Demographic and epilepsy-related clinical variables had a strong influence (22–32%) on the cognition-related domain such as general adaptive function, school/total competence, and quality of life for cognitive function while a comparatively smaller effect (2–16%) on the more psychological domain including behavioral, emotional, and social variables. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, and smaller number of medications showed a strong positive impact on psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy, particularly for adaptive function, competence, and quality-of-life aspects.
Given the wide range of impact of demographic and clinical variables on various facets of psychosocial functions, more specific understanding of the various aspects of factors and their particular pattern of influence may enable more effective therapeutic approaches that address both the medical and psychological needs in pediatric epilepsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with X-linked transmission. Common clinical manifestations of CMTX1 disease, as in other forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, are distal muscle wasting and weakness, hyporeflexia, distal sensory disturbance, and foot deformities. Mutations in the connexin-32 gene (gap junction protein β1 [GJB1]) are responsible for CMTX1 disease. In this report, we describe a patient with CMTX1 disease presenting with recurrent attacks of transient and episodic acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms without previous signs of lower extremity weakness or foot deformities; the patient, as well as his asymptomatic mother, exhibited a novel GJB1 mutation (p.Met1Ile). Differential diagnosis of recurrent and transient ADEM-like illness, if unexplained, should include the possibility of CMTX1 disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
This study was to evaluate the relationship of 25(OH)D3 levels with anticonvulsant use and other possible factors in epileptic children and adolescents.
Materials and Methods
We studied 143 patients with epilepsy (90 boys, 53 girls; 11.21±4.49 years), who had been treated with anticonvulsants for more than 1 year. Patients who had taken multiple vitamins before the blood test and those who have the limitation of physical activity (wheelchair-bound) were excluded from the study. We evaluated the difference in vitamin D status according to the type and number of anticonvulsants taken and other factors such as gender, age, intelligence and seizure variables.
For patients with mental retardation or developmental delay, 25(OH)D3 levels were lower than the levels in patients with normal intelligence quotient levels (p=0.03). 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in patients who had taken anticonvulsants for more than 2 years as compared to those who had taken them for less than 2 years (p=0.03). Those taking oxcarbazepine had significantly lower vitamin D levels than patients taking valproic acid (p=0.01). However, no effects of number of anticonvulsants taken were detectable. More than two-thirds of the patients were diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis in patients showing either vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency.
The possibility of vitamin D deficiency can be considered in pediatric patients taking anticonvulsants if they have mental retardation or developmental delay or if they have been taking anticonvulsants for more than 2 years or taking hepatic enzyme inducing drugs.
Yonsei medical journal 03/2014; 55(2):417-21. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.2.417 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a technique used to analyze quantitative increase or decrease of chromosomes by competitive DNA hybridization of patients and controls. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and yield of array-CGH in comparison with conventional karyotyping in pediatric neurology patients.
Materials and Methods
We included 87 patients from the pediatric neurology clinic with at least one of the following features: developmental delay, mental retardation, dysmorphic face, or epilepsy. DNA extracted from patients and controls was hybridized on the Roche NimbleGen 135K oligonucleotide array and compared with G-band karyotyping. The results were analyzed with findings reported in recent publications and internet databases.
Chromosome imbalances, including 9 cases detected also by G-band karyotyping, were found in 28 patients (32.2%), and at least 19 of them seemed to be causally related to the abnormal phenotypes. Regarding each clinical symptom, 26.2% of 42 developmental delay patients, 44.4% of 18 mental retardation patients, 42.9% of 28 dysmorphic face patients, and 34.6% of 26 epilepsy patients showed abnormal array results.
Although there were relatively small number of tests in patients with pediatric neurologic disease, this study demonstrated that array-CGH is a very useful tool for clinical diagnosis of unknown genome abnormalities performed in pediatric neurology clinics.
Yonsei medical journal 01/2014; 55(1):30-6. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.1.30 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury.
The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study.
Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a very rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder characterized by craniosynostosis and acrocephalosyndactyly. It is caused by a mutation in TWIST1, located on chromosome 7p21. A shortage of functional TWIST1 protein affects the development and maturation of cells in the skull, face, and limbs. The patient described in this report displayed craniofacial features classic for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, including craniosynostosis, low-set ears, small pinna with prominent crura, a high-arched palate, and a simian crease on the left hand. He did not have the limb anomalies commonly seen in patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, and the results of conventional chromosome analysis were normal. However, results of a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) study confirmed the karyotype of 46,XY.7p21.1p15.3(15,957,375-20,331,837)x1, a region that includes TWIST1. Subsequent fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis confirmed this result. No other chromosome was involved in the rearrangement. This case illustrates the important contribution of array CGH to the identification of TWIST microdeletions, even in a patient not showing the phenotype typical of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.
Child s Nervous System 08/2013; 29(11). DOI:10.1007/s00381-013-2235-0 · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well-known that the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is higher in epileptic children than in the general pediatric population. The aim of this study was to compare the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no significant intellectual disability with that in healthy controls. We included epileptic children between the ages of 6 and 12 yr visiting our clinic for six consecutive months and controls without significant medical or psychiatric illnesses. We excluded patients with intellectual disability or persistent seizures during the recent three months. The diagnosis of ADHD was based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). After exclusion of 84 patients, we enrolled 102 (54.8%) children (mean age, 9.4 ± 2.0 yr). Seven (7 of 102, 6.9%) were diagnosed with ADHD. As compared to control group (4 of 110, 3.6%), there was no difference in ADHD accompaniment (P = 0.29). No difference was observed in ADHD accompaniment according to seizure type and epilepsy syndrome. In conclusion, the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no intellectual disability may not differ from that of the general pediatric population.
Journal of Korean medical science 10/2012; 27(10):1229-32. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.10.1229 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, open label trial to evaluate the effectiveness of oxcarbazepine (OXC) oral suspension as monotherapy for children newly diagnosed with partial seizures.
This trial included a two- to eight-week titration and stabilization period to achieve effective target doses and a 24-week maintenance phase. The primary outcome measure was the seizure-free rate over six months, while a secondary measure was the change in cognition and behavior from screening to the end of the maintenance phase. The effectiveness of OXC was compared in intellectually normal versus intellectually impaired children (intelligence quotient <70).
We enrolled 171 patients and analyzed 168 as the per-protocol (PP) group (3 patients had protocol violations). The mean age of the PP group was 8.4±2.7 years. The maintenance dose of OXC was 24.9±8.0mg/kg/day. Of the 168 patients included in the efficacy analysis, 122 (72.6%) completed the study and 94 (56.0%) became seizure-free after the OXC treatment. Comparing the efficacy of OXC for intellectually normal and intellectually impaired patients, 79 (56.8%) of the 139 intellectually normal patients and 15 (51.7%) of the 29 intellectually impaired patients became seizure-free (P=0.61). After treatment, intelligence scale scores improved in intellectually normal patients compared to the intellectually impaired children (P<0.05). Social problems quantified by behavior scales improved in intellectually impaired patients compared to intellectually normal children (P<0.05).
OXC is effective and well-tolerated as monotherapy in children with partial seizures. There was no difference in the effectiveness of OXC between intellectually normal and intellectually impaired children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the cognitive and behavioral effects of lamotrigine (LTG) to carbamazepine (CBZ) as monotherapy for pediatric epilepsy. A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted in children with partial-onset seizures. LTG or CBZ was prescribed as monotherapy for previously untreated children and titrated over 8weeks, followed by maintenance for 24weeks. Outcome measures were change in cognition and behavior in a combined analysis of standardized measures from screening to the end of the maintenance phase, as well as antiepileptic efficacy and tolerability. A total of 67 children completed the study, including 32 of 43 (74.4%) treated with LTG and 35 of 41 (85.4%) treated with CBZ. Seizure-free outcomes did not differ between the intent-to-treat populations (53.5% LTG, 56.1% CBZ; p=0.81). There were no statistically significant differences in the intelligence of the two groups after treatment. Externalizing behavior problems improved in the CBZ group (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of externalizing behavior. The parents' report on the Conner scale showed an improvement in the CBZ group compared to the LTG group (p<0.05). LTG and CBZ showed similar efficacy and cognitive effects in treating childhood partial epilepsy. However, CBZ showed more benefits in improving externalizing behaviors.
Brain & development 04/2012; 34(10):818-23. DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2012.03.006 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of rufinamide as an add-on treatment in children and adolescents with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS).
The study was an open-label, observational clinical trial of rufinamide as an add-on treatment in intractable LGS patients. This intent-to-treat trial included 4 weeks of scheduled titrated doses and a 12-week maintenance phase with a target dose of 20-40 mg/kg rufinamide, adjusted according to its effectiveness and tolerability after a baseline period of 4 weeks. The primary outcome was measured by the seizure-reduction rate according to individual seizure type over the 12-week maintenance period.
One hundred and twenty-eight patients with LGS who were determined to be unresponsive to one or more antiepileptic drugs or dietary therapy were enrolled. Of the 128 patients enrolled, 112 (87.5%) completed the study. After add-on rufinamide treatment, 46 patients (35.9%) achieved a more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and 10 (7.8%) patients became seizure-free. When we identified those who responded with an at least 50% reduction in seizure frequency, 39.4% of the responders reported reductions in convulsive seizures, 36.4% in drop attacks, 33.3% in myoclonic seizures, and 20.0% in epileptic spasms. Overall, 32.8% of patients reported adverse effects, which were mostly mild and transient in nature. The most common adverse effects were fatigue (15 patients, 11.7%) and poor appetite (9 patients, 7.0%). Twenty-one (16.4%) patients experienced an increased seizure frequency.
Rufinamide appears to be a safe and effective adjuvant treatment for many cases of intractable LGS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the neuroprotective effects of human placental extracts (HPE) and the effects of HPE on recovery of cognitive and behavioral function on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the newborn rat. The right common carotid arteries of 7-day-old rats were coagulated, and rats were then exposed to 8% oxygen. Immediately before and again at three times after the hypoxia-ischemia (pre-treatment group), and immediately after and three times again after hypoxia-ischemia (post-treatment group), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with HPE (0.1, 0.25, or 0.5mL/10g/dose). No-treatment rats received saline only. On postnatal day 12, brains were removed and gross morphological damage was evaluated. To quantify the severity of brain injury, bilateral cross-sectional areas of the anterior commissural and posterior hippocampal levels were analyzed with NIH Image. Assessments of the open field activity levels at 2, 4, 6 and 8week and, the Morris water maze test at 8weeks after hypoxia-ischemia were carried out according to standard methods. HPE pre-treatment decreased the incidence of liquefactive cerebral infarction, at an optimally neuroprotective dose of 0.5mL/10g/dose (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze test, the group injected with HPE at 0.5mL/10g/dose concentration showed shorter escape latencies than the no-treatment group (P<0.05). These findings support a protective effect of the HPE treatment on neuronal integrity and cognitive function following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Injected at an appropriate dose prior to exposure, HPE may significantly reduce or prevent hypoxic-ischemic injury in the immature brain.
Brain & development 02/2012; 35(1). DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2012.01.009 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the 1-year prevalence of headache and clinical characteristics of primary headaches among school children in South Korea.
Many population-based studies have estimated the 1-year prevalence of headache, migraine, and tension-type headache (TTH). The results of those studies vary in terms of race and region. There have been few epidemiological population-based studies of headache in children and adolescents in Korea.
We conducted a cross-sectional school-based study of a randomized and proportional sample of 5360 boys and girls. All 180 sampled schools participated in this study. The questionnaires collected demographic data in addition to specific questions about headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorder criteria, 2nd Edition. Valid questionnaires were returned by 94.1% of the sample population. Modified criteria changed the "duration" of migraine (>1 hour instead of 4 hours).
The prevalence of headache among school children was 29.1% (1465/5039) in South Korea. The prevalence of headache in girls (33.4%) was significantly higher than in boys (24.4%) (P<.001). The mean age of students with headaches (14.02±3.03) was significantly higher than students without headaches (12.73±3.36) (P <.001). The prevalence of headache according to region was 30.7% among students in urban, 31.2% in suburban, and 21.6% in rural areas. The prevalence of headache according to age was 20.8% among students ∼6-12 years, 32.0% ∼13-15 years, and 38.2% ∼16-18 years. The prevalence according to headache types was 8.7% (boys 7.0%, girls 10.3%) in migraine, 13.7% (boys 10.7%, girls 16.3%) in TTH, and 6.7% in others. The mean frequency, severity of headache, and duration of symptoms were significantly higher in girls than in boys (P<.001).
Recurrent primary headaches are quite prevalent among school-aged children and adolescents in South Korea, and the prevalence rates are similar to those reported elsewhere. TTH was more common than migraine. The prevalence of migraine headache increased with age. The prevalence rate of headache in students in urban and suburban areas was significantly higher than the rate of students in rural areas.
Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 09/2011; 52(4):592-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2011.02001.x · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection.
Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients.
MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images.
EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of zonisamide (ZNS) as monotherapy in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy.
This randomized, multicenter trial included a 2-4-week titration and a 24-week maintenance phase after randomization to low-(3-4 mg/kg/day) or high-(6-8 mg/kg/day) dose groups as target maintenance dosages. The primary outcome measure was the seizure-free rate over 6 months, while a secondary measure was the change in cognition and behavior from screening to the end of the maintenance phase.
Out of 125 patients enrolled, 90 (49 low-dose and 41 high-dose) completed the study. Forty-one patients (63.1%) in the low-dose group and 34(57.6%) in the high-dose group achieved 6 months' freedom from seizures (p=0.66). After treatment, the picture arrangement subtest improved in the low-dose group (p=0.047) while the vocabulary subtest worsened in the high-dose group (p=0.020). Comparing between the two groups, the vocabulary subtest in the high-dose group was significantly worse than that in the low-dose group (p=0.002). Social competence, somatic complaints, depression/anxiety and delinquent and aggressive behavior in the low-dose group were significantly improved (p<0.05). Moreover, total social competence, somatic complaints, delinquent behavior, externalizing, and total behavior problems were significantly more improved in the low-dose group than the high-dose group (p<0.05).
ZNS is an effective monotherapy for newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. Lower doses of ZNS have a similar efficacy and more beneficial neurocognitive effects compared to higher doses. When prescribing higher doses of ZNS, one must be aware of the possible manifestation of problems associated with language development, such as those affecting vocabulary acquisition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of neuroimaging and to estimate the prevalence of significant and treatable intracranial lesions in children and adolescents with recurrent headaches.
Neuroimaging studies are commonly performed in children and adolescent patients with headache because of increasing demands by parents and physicians, although objective data and studies to support this widespread practice are minimal.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1562 (male 724, female 838) new patients presenting with recurrent headaches to 9 Pediatric Neurology Clinics of tertiary Hospitals. Data regarding age of onset, duration of symptoms before presentation, frequency, duration of each episode, intensity, location and quality of headache, associated neurologic symptoms and a comprehensive neurological examination were obtained for each patient. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, was used to classify headache types.
Neuroimaging procedures were performed in 77.1% of the patients. Overall, 9.3% (112/1204) of the patients had abnormal findings from neuroimaging. The highest yield was in patients with an abnormal neurological examination wherein abnormal findings on neuroimaging were seen in 50.0% (9/18) of patients (P < .001). The yield was low when imaging was carried out in view of changes in the type of headache (12.9% [26/201]), neurologic dysfunction (10.8% [9/83]), recent onset of severe headaches (7.0% [12/171]), and demands of parent and physicians (10.1% [21/208]). Eleven patients underwent surgery based on neuroimaging results. There was no significant relation between abnormality on neuroimaging and age, sex, headache type, age of onset of headache, duration of symptoms before presentation, duration, frequency, location and intensity of headache (P > .05).
Neuroimaging procedures in children and adolescents with headaches, although not always required, are very commonly performed. We suggest that more strict guidelines for rational use of neuroimaging are needed for pediatric headache patients.
Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 03/2011; 51(3):403-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2011.01845.x · 2.71 Impact Factor