[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We employ antiferromagnetic tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance to study the behavior of antiferromagnetically ordered moments in IrMn exchange coupled to NiFe. Experiments performed by common laboratory tools for magnetization and electrical transport measurements allow us to directly link the broadening of the NiFe hysteresis loop and its shift (exchange bias) to the rotation and pinning of antiferromagnetic moments in IrMn. At higher temperatures, the broadened loops show zero shift, which correlates with the observation of fully rotating antiferromagnetic moments inside the IrMn film. The onset of exchange bias at lower temperatures is linked to a partial rotation between distinct metastable states and pinning of the IrMn antiferromagnetic moments in these states. The observation complements common pictures of exchange bias and reveals an electrically measurable memory effect in an antiferromagnet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A spin valve is a microelectronic device in which high- and low-resistance states are realized by using both the charge and spin of carriers. Spin-valve structures used in modern hard-drive read heads and magnetic random access memoriescomprise two ferromagnetic electrodes whose relative magnetization orientations can be switched between parallel and antiparallel configurations, yielding the desired giant or tunnelling magnetoresistance effect. Here we demonstrate more than 100% spin-valve-like signal in a NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt stack with an antiferromagnet on one side and a non-magnetic metal on the other side of the tunnel barrier. Ferromagneticmoments in NiFe are reversed by external fields of approximately 50 mT or less, and the exchange-spring effect of NiFe on IrMn induces rotation of antiferromagnetic moments in IrMn, which is detected by the measured tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance. Our work demonstrates a spintronic element whose transport characteristics are governed by an antiferromagnet. It demonstrates that sensitivity to low magnetic fields can be combined with large, spin-orbit-coupling-induced magnetotransport anisotropy using a single magnetic electrode. The antiferromagnetic tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance provides a means to study magnetic characteristics of antiferromagnetic films by an electronic-transport measurement.
Nature Material 03/2011; 10(5):347-51. DOI:10.1038/nmat2983 · 36.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spin-valve is a microelectronic device in which high and low resistance states are realized by utilizing both charge and spin of carriers. Spin-valve structures used in modern hard drive read-heads and magnetic random access memories comprise two ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes whose relative magnetization orientations can be switched between parallel and antiparallel configurations, yielding the desired giant or tunneling magnetoresistance effect. In this paper we demonstrate >100$% spin-valve-like signal in a NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt stack with an antiferromagnet (AFM) on one side and a non-magnetic metal on the other side of the tunnel barrier. FM moments in NiFe are reversed by external fields <50mT and the exchange-spring effect of NiFe on IrMn induces rotation of AFM moments in IrMn which is detected by the measured tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR). Our work demonstrates a spintronic element whose transport characteristics are governed by an AFM. It demonstrates that sensitivity to low magnetic fields can be combined with large, spin-orbit coupling induced magneto-transport anisotropy using a single magnetic electrode. The AFM-TAMR provides means to study magnetic characteristics of AFM films by an electronic transport measurement. Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a study of the magnetoresistance (MR) of a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) at the break-down regime when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the device. We have identified two different regimes where we observe a large and gate-voltage dependent MR. We suggest two different mechanisms which can explain the observed high MR. Moreover, we have studied how the MR of the MOSFET scales with the dimensions of the channel for gate voltages below the threshold. We observed a decrease in the MR by two orders of magnitude by reducing the dimensions of the channel from 50×280 μm2 to 5×5 μm2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in semiconductor spintronics which seeks new paradigms for information processing technologies. We have brought the two directions together to realize an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. Our scheme circumvents semiconductor-ferromagnet interface problems of the original Datta-Das spin transistor concept and demonstrates the utility of the spin Hall effects in microelectronics. The devices use diffusive transport and operate without electrical current, i.e., without Joule heating in the active part of the transistor. We demonstrate a spin AND logic function in a semiconductor channel with two gates. Our experimental study is complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of spin-diffusion through the transistor channel. Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrical detection of spin-polarized transport in semiconductors is one of the key prerequisites for successful incorporation of spin in semiconductor microelectronics. The present schemes are based on spin-dependent transport effects within the spin generation region in the semiconductor, or on non-local detection outside the spin-injection area using a ferromagnet attached to the semiconductor. Here, we report that polarized injection of carriers can be detected by transverse electrical signals directly along the semiconducting channel, both inside and outside the injection area, without disturbing the spin-polarized current or using magnetic elements. Our planar p–n diode microdevices enable us to demonstrate Hall effect symmetries and large magnitudes of the measured effect. Supported by microscopic calculations, we infer that the observed spin-injection Hall
effect reflects spin dynamics induced by an internal spin–orbit field and is closely related to the anomalous and spin Hall effects. The spin-injection Hall effect is observed up to high temperatures and our devices represent a realization of a non-magnetic spin-photovoltaic polarimeter that directly converts polarization of light into transverse voltage signals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful incorporation of the spin degree of freedom in semiconductor technology requires the development of a new paradigm allowing for a scalable, non-destructive electrical detection of the spin-polarization of injected charge carriers as they propagate along the semiconducting channel. In this paper we report the observation of a spin-injection Hall effect (SIHE) which exploits the quantum-relativistic nature of spin-charge transport and which meets all these key requirements on the spin detection. The two-dimensional electron-hole gas photo-voltaic cell we designed to observe the SIHE allows us to develop a quantitative microscopic theory of the phenomenon and to demonstrate its direct application in optoelectronics. We report an experimental realization of a non-magnetic spin-photovoltaic effect via the SIHE, rendering our device an electrical polarimeter which directly converts the degree of circular polarization of light to a voltage signal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report observations of tunneling anisotropic magnetoresitance (TAMR) in vertical tunnel devices with a ferromagnetic multilayer-(Co/Pt) electrode and a nonmagnetic Pt counterelectrode separated by an AlOx barrier. In stacks with the ferromagnetic electrode terminated by a Co film the TAMR magnitude saturates at 0.15% beyond which it shows only weak dependence on the magnetic field strength, bias voltage, and temperature. For ferromagnetic electrodes terminated by two monolayers of Pt we observe order(s) of magnitude enhancement of the TAMR and a strong dependence on field, temperature and bias. The discussion of experiments is based on relativistic ab initio calculations of magnetization orientation dependent densities of states of Co and Co/Pt model systems.