Begoña Granda

Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Castile and Leon, Spain

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Publications (8)30.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Unlike in the adult brain, the newborn brain specifically takes up serum albumin during the postnatal period, coinciding with the stage of maximal brain development. Here we report that albumin stimulates oleic acid synthesis by astrocytes from the main metabolic substrates available during brain development. Oleic acid released by astrocytes is used by neurons for the synthesis of phospholipids and is specifically incorporated into growth cones. Oleic acid promotes axonal growth, neuronal clustering, and expression of the axonal growth-associated protein-43, GAP-43; all these observations indicating neuronal differentiation. The effect of oleic acid on GAP-43 synthesis is brought about by the activation of protein kinase C, since it was prevented by inhibitors of this kinase, such as H-7, polymyxin or sphingosine. The expression of GAP-43 was significantly increased in neurons co-cultured with astrocytes by the presence of albumin indicating that neuronal differentiation takes place in the presence of oleic acid synthesized and released by astrocytes in situ. In conclusion, during brain development the presence of albumin could play an important role by triggering the synthesis and release of oleic acid by astrocytes, which induces neuronal differentiation.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2008; 79(3):606 - 616. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that the presence of albumin in astrocytes triggers the synthesis and release of oleic acid, which behaves as a neurotrophic factor for neurons. Thus, oleic acid promotes axonal growth, neuronal clustering, and the expression of the axonal growth-associated protein, GAP-43. In this work we show that oleic acid upregulates GAP-43 expression by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanism. Since GAP-43 expression has been shown to be upregulated by several neurotrophins, we investigated the relationship between the effect of oleic acid and that of NGF, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) on GAP-43 expression. Our results indicate that NGF is not involved in the neurotrophic effect of oleic acid because the addition of NGF did not modify the effect of oleic acid on GAP-43 expression. Neither NT-3 nor NT-4/5 alone modified GAP-43 expression. However, NT-3 and NT-4/5 acted synergistically with oleic acid to increase GAP-43 expression. The lack of effect of NGF as compared to other neurotrophins is not unexpected since we have not found TrkA expression under our experimental conditions. The effect of oleic acid on GAP-43 expression must be independent of autocrine factors synthesized by neurons because this effect was also observed at low cellular densities. In conclusion, our results indicate that oleic acid behaves as a neurotrophic factor, inducing GAP-43 expression through a PKC-mediated mechanism that is not mediated by other neurotrophic factors but that is strongly synergized by NT-3 and NT-4/5.
    Brain Research 11/2003; 988(1-2):1-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that the presence of albumin within the brain and the CSF is developmentally regulated. However, the physiological relevance of this phenomenon is not well established. We have previously shown that albumin specifically increases the flux of glucose and lactate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction in astrocytes. Here we show that, in neurones, albumin also increases the oxidation of glucose and lactate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase-catalysed reaction, the final purpose of this being the synthesis of glutamate. Thus, in neurones, the presence of albumin strongly increased the synthesis and release of glutamate to the extracellular medium. Our results also suggest that glutamate release caused by albumin is designed to promote neuronal survival. Thus, under culture conditions in which neurones die by apoptosis, the presence of albumin promoted neuronal survival and maintained the differentiation programme of these cells, as judged by the expression of the axonal protein, GAP-43. The effect of albumin on neuronal survival was counteracted by the presence of DNQX, an antagonist of non-NMDA-glutamate receptors, suggesting that the glutamate synthesized and released due to the presence of albumin is responsible for neuronal survival. In addition, the effect of albumin seemed to depend on the activity of the NGF receptor, TrkA, suggesting that the glutamate synthesized and released due to the presence of albumin promotes neuronal survival through the activity of TrkA.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2002; 81(4):881-91. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that albumin, a serum protein present in the developing brain, stimulates the synthesis of oleic acid by astrocytes, which promotes neuronal differentiation. In this work, we gain insight into the mechanism by which albumin induces the synthesis of this neurotrophic factor. Our results show that astrocytes internalize albumin in vesicle-like structures by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Albumin uptake was followed by transcytosis, including passage through the endoplasmic reticulum, which was required to induce the synthesis of oleic acid. Oleic acid synthesis is feedback-regulated by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, which induces the transcription of stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase, the key rate-limiting enzyme for oleic acid synthesis. In our research, the presence of albumin activated the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and increased stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase mRNA. Moreover, when the activity of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 was inhibited by overexpression of a truncated form of this protein, albumin did not affect stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase mRNA, indicating that the effect of albumin is mediated by this transcription factor. The effect of albumin was abolished when traffic to the endoplasmic reticulum was prevented or when albumin was accompanied with oleic acid. In conclusion, our results suggest that the transcytosis of albumin includes passage through the endoplasmic reticulum, where oleic acid is sequestrated, initiating the signal cascade leading to an increase in its own synthesis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2002; 277(6):4240-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike in the adult brain, the newborn brain specifically takes up serum albumin during the postnatal period, coinciding with the stage of maximal brain development. Here we report that albumin stimulates oleic acid synthesis by astrocytes from the main metabolic substrates available during brain development. Oleic acid released by astrocytes is used by neurons for the synthesis of phospholipids and is specifically incorporated into growth cones. Oleic acid promotes axonal growth, neuronal clustering, and expression of the axonal growth-associated protein-43, GAP-43; all these observations indicating neuronal differentiation. The effect of oleic acid on GAP-43 synthesis is brought about by the activation of protein kinase C, since it was prevented by inhibitors of this kinase, such as H-7, polymyxin or sphingosine. The expression of GAP-43 was significantly increased in neurons co-cultured with astrocytes by the presence of albumin indicating that neuronal differentiation takes place in the presence of oleic acid synthesized and released by astrocytes in situ. In conclusion, during brain development the presence of albumin could play an important role by triggering the synthesis and release of oleic acid by astrocytes, which induces neuronal differentiation.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2001; 79(3):606-16. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the scrape-loading technique in cultured astrocytes, we show that sulfonylureas such as tolbutamide and glybenzcyclamide, which inhibit the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, prevent the inhibition of gap junction permeability caused by several structurally unrelated uncouplers such as oleic acid, arachidonic acid, endothelin-1, octanol, and alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid. When the intracellular level of Ca2+ was diminished, all the uncouplers tested were still able to inhibit gap junction communication, indicating that their inhibitory effect was not mediated by Ca2+. In addition, tolbutamide and glybenzcyclamide prevented the inhibitory effect of these uncouplers in Ca(2+)-depleted astrocytes, suggesting that the inhibition of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel increases gap junction permeability through a Ca(2+)-independent mechanism. The activation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel caused by potassium channel openers such as diazoxide and pinacidil led to the inhibition of gap junction communication and overcame the effect of sulfonylureas. These results suggest that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel regulates gap junctional permeability.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 04/2000; 74(3):1249-56. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the scrape-loading technique in cultured astrocytes, we show that sulfonylureas such as tolbutamide and glybenzcyclamide, which inhibit the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, prevent the inhibition of gap junction permeability caused by several structurally unrelated uncouplers such as oleic acid, arachidonic acid, endothelin-1, octanol, and α-glycyrrhetinic acid. When the intracellular level of Ca2+ was diminished, all the uncouplers tested were still able to inhibit gap junction communication, indicating that their inhibitory effect was not mediated by Ca2+. In addition, tolbutamide and glybenzcyclamide prevented the inhibitory effect of these uncouplers in Ca2+-depleted astrocytes, suggesting that the inhibition of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel increases gap junction permeability through a Ca2+-independent mechanism. The activation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel caused by potassium channel openers such as diazoxide and pinacidil led to the inhibition of gap junction communication and overcame the effect of sulfonylureas. These results suggest that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel regulates gap junctional permeability.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2000; 74(3):1249 - 1256. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the scrape-loading technique we show that tolbutamide and glybenzcyclamide, two inhibitors of the K+ channel sensitive to ATP (K-ATP channel), partially prevent the inhibition of gap junction permeability promoted by Ca2+ in cultured astrocytes. This effect was dose-dependent, reaching a maximum at 400 microM and 1 microM of tolbutamide and glybenzcyclamide, respectively. The presence of the Ca2+ ionophore A-23187 strongly reduced the concentration of Ca2+ required to block gap junction permeability but did not abolish the effect of tolbutamide and glybenzcyclamide. These results suggest that the effect of these two compounds are not brought about by control of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ but probably by the promotion of plasma membrane depolarization.
    FEBS Letters 06/1998; 427(1):41-5. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

146 Citations
30.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2008
    • Universidad de Salamanca
      • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
      Salamanca, Castile and Leon, Spain
  • 2001–2002
    • Hospital Universitario de Salamanca
      Helmantica, Castille and León, Spain